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Gall No. 7 9^ '"<! in % ^ ft Acctision No. <Q 



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THE compilation of a book of this nature is only 
made possible by the assistance of many 
individuals in supplying information and by 
consulting the works of others. 

My most grateful thanks are therefore due to 
the correspondents in this and other countries 
who have furnished me with statistics, and I also 
tender my acknowledgments to the authors and 
publishers of the books I have consulted, a list 
of which is given at the end of the book. The 
columns of " The Field ", " Country Life ", and 
other publications have also yielded a great deal 
of information. Lastly, but by no means least, 
I have to thank Messrs. Rowland Ward Ltd. for 
much valuable assistance. 

Throughout the book I have purposely re- 
frained from using the prefix " the late " in con- 
nection with those sportsmen who are no longer 
with us, and I have not attempted to bring up to 
date the titles and rank of the many individuals 
mentioned, the dates of the bags or episodes with 
which they are concerned being sufficient by 
which to identify them. 

E N. B. 


PREFACE ...... 5 






VL LIONS ...... 92 

VFI. TIGERS ...... 106 



X. WILD BOAR ..... 152 

XL RED DEER . . . l6l 

XIL ROE-DEER ... . l86 

XJIL CHAMOIS . . .193 


XV. ELK ....... 212 



XVIIL MOOSE ...... 236 

XIX. WAPITI ...... 24O 






IN SINGLE FILE . . . Frontispiece 

W. D, M. BELL . . . To face page 22 




1911 .... 108 

F. C. SELOUS ... 126 

CROSS Bows ABOUT 1400 162 



G. J. VAN HEEK, JR. . . 218 
BULL MOOSE ... 236 


THE production of a book bearing the title " Big 
Game Shooting Records " may not seem quite in 
keeping with modern ideals, and some may be 
inclined to regard it as inimical to the best inter- 
ests of sport. I have, however, so often seen and 
heard the names of various men mentioned in 
connection with one and the same record, that 1 
determined, if only for the sake of historical 
accuracy, to endeavour to obtain the true facts 
regarding the record bags of the principal animals 
of the chase. Whatever our views on the subject 
may be, it seems certain, that so long as the man 
exists who inherits the natural instinct to hunt, so 
long will he be interested in the results achieved 
by others. Records for the mere sake of records 
are certainly to be condemned, but in every form 
of blood sport we still regard the blank day as 
the unsuccessful day, and the day on which we 
fill the bag as the successful one, and so long as 
we retain this point of view, game books and 
hunting diaries will continue to be of interest. A 
number of the achievements here recorded can 
never again be equalled, and as examples of 
skill, courage and endurance, many of them are 
sufficiently remarkable to merit being placed on 
permanent record for these reasons alone. 



As books of reference dealing with records, we 
already have Rowland Ward's " Records of Big 
Game", the one and only authoritative work deal- 
ing with horn, antler and other measurements, 
and Mr. H. S. Gladstone's " Record Bags and 
Shooting Records " which deals exclusively with 
small game, but, so far as I know, no attempt 
has hitherto been made to collect and place on 
record the most noteworthy bags of big game. 

In the compilation of this volume one difficulty 
was to decide what animals to include and what 
to leave out. It would obviously be of no interest 
to anyone to give details of the slaughter of say 
zebras, giraffes, or any of the small gazelles, nor 
would such animals as the markhor or ovis poli 
prove any more interesting, since in these cases 
good heads arc the hunter's sole ambition and 
numbers mean simply nothing at all. The most 
obviously interesting records are those concerning 
dangerous game. Among animals of this type it 
will be noted that I have not devoted a chapter 
to leopards or any of the smaller cats. They 
figure in various bags that are recorded, but they 
are rarely made the special objective of any hunt- 
ing expedition and the shooting of them is usually 
incidental to the hunting of some other animal. 

With regard to non-dangerous game, some sur- 
prise may be evinced at the inclusion of a chapter 



devoted to roe-deer, but though this beautiful 
little animal is usually treated with scant respect 
in our own islands, it affords first-rate sport to 
more Continental sportsmen than any other game 
animal and is nearly as highly prized as the red 
deer. I trust therefore that the records of Con- 
tinental bags obtained by stalking or " still 
hunting" will prove of interest. The European 
bison still maintains a precarious footing in 
Europe, though its range and numbers are I be- 
lieve more strictly limited than ever. The few 
pages I have devoted to it may be of some 
historical interest. 

The wholesale slaughter of the North American 
bison cannot by any stretch of the imagination be 
looked upon as sport. It was purely a com- 
mercial proposition for those engaging in it, but 
it is a scrap of the world's history, the like of 
which can never be repeated, so I have included 
a few facts and figures relating to that mighty 
wave of destruction. 

Writing as an historian, I neither praise nor 
condemn the feats and figures I have collected to- 
gether; but in reading the pages that follow one 
should not lose sight of the fact that many of 
the great bags recorded were made in countries 
that were then new and practically unknown. 
The feelings and views of the early pioneers, first 



penetrating lands where practically every factor 
was an unknown quantity, cannot be easily 
visualized to-day. It is hardly surprising how- 
ever that men endeavouring to carve a career for 
themselves under such circumstances should have 
taken a heavy toll of the game. There is no 
doubt whatever that in Africa the feeding of the 
natives on game killed by white men has again 
and again played an all important part in early 
exploration and colonization. In the middle of 
the last century, that great hunter and explorer, 
William Cotton Oswell, on arriving in the country 
of the Ba-Kaa found them in a pitiable condition. 
Their crops had failed and they were starving. 
The chief begged him to feed his people and he 
took six hundred men, women and children, with 
him to the hunting grounds. They started in an 
awful state of emaciation and sickness but in 
seven weeks he sent them back to their kraals, 
plump and happy, with not one ill or missing. 
Can it be wondered that the savage welcomed the 
white man, and it is certainly difficult to say how 
much we owe to the influence of the pioneer 
hunters in the subsequent colonization of the 
countries in which they first hunted. Those days 
have gone, never to return, and the unrestricted 
use of the rifle is practically a thing of the past. 
As trustees of the world's fauna, civilized man 



has tackled this difficult task with a large measure 
of success, and though, unhappily, the realization 
of his responsibilities came too late to save 
from extermination a few interesting species, the 
preservation of wild life is now a recognized 
function of the civilized governments which hold 
sway over uncivilized or less civilized lands. 
Modern man has been educated to treat wild life 
with greater restraint, and the ideals of the 
modern hunter of big game are concentrated 
more on the acquisition of good representative 
trophies. Record heads may be his great ambi- 
tion, but these must always be largely a matter of 
luck. Since the perfection of photography some 
men have laid aside the rifle for the camera and 
no doubt this is a form of sport second to none. 
Throughout the book I have made every effort 
to obtain strict accuracy, and wherever any esti- 
mated figures are given I have also set forth the 
data on which such estimates are based. So far 
as possible I have given details of the methods of 
hunting. This is important, as a bag of lions 
made with the assistance of a large pack of dogs 
is a very different feat to a like number killed 
without such aid. I need hardly stress the 
enormous advantage held by later-day hunters 
armed with high-velocity breech-loading weapons 
over the Nimrods of the muzzle-loading days. 



Whenever I have been able to obtain it I have 
given particulars of the weapons used. 

Though in many instances I am confident that 
the bags quoted are in fact actual records, it is not 
possible to be certain of this in every case. Many 
men of great experience are reticent in mention- 
ing their achievements, and many of the old 
hunters have left but meagre details concerning 
their bags. Little did many of them realize that 
countries, which in their time teemed with game, 
would in fifty or less years be practically destitute 
of large animals. They could not foresee that 
their experiences and achievements would so 
soon become facts of considerable historical 
interest; had they done so, my task would doubt- 
less have proved easier than has been the case. 
As might be expected the search for European 
records was easier and the details of sport in 
mediaeval Europe afford a clear indication of the 
extraordinary devotion to the chase exhibited by 
the nobility and landed proprietors of those days. 

By careful research and enquiry I have en- 
deavoured to achieve a result in keeping with the 
title of the book, but I shall welcome any addi- 
tional information that my readers may care to 
send me. 




ACCORDING to Professor H. Fairfield Osborn, 
man has been a hunter of mastodons and 
elephants for the sake of their bones, ivory, and 
flesh, for a million and a quarter years. 

The question of the comparative danger of 
various wild beasts has always been a highly 
controversial subject, but, certain it is, that the 
pursuit of elephants is one of the most dangerous 
of sports, and most hunters of experience have 
placed the elephant either first second or third, 
on the list of dangerous game. 

In the early days of South Africa, when these 
animals were to be found in relatively open 
country, it was possible to pursue them on horse- 
back, but the constant persecution to which they 
were subjected had the effect of driving them into 
the " fly " infested country of the interior where 
horses could no longer be used. With this princi- 
pal exception the African elephant is hunted 
on foot, and if consistently followed up this 
represents the most exacting form of sport in the 



The restrictions now placed upon elephant 
hunting seem to preclude the possibility of the 
enormous bags that follow ever being equalled, 
and elephant hunting as a remunerative pro- 
fession is a thing of the past. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, the most 
successful African elephant hunter of all time is 
Mr. W. D. M. Bell, who has killed 983 bulls and 
28 cows, making a total of 1,011 elephants.* 

W. D. M. BELL 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Bell for the many 
intimate details concerning his career which 

Born in 1880, he formed the fixed intention of 
becoming an elephant hunter at an early age. 
He landed in Africa towards the end of the last 
century, and success attended his earliest efforts. 
Since that time he has spent sixteen and a half 
years on the actual hunting grounds and has shot 
in the following localities: Kenya, Karamojo, 
Abyssinia, Sudan, Lado Enclave, French Ivory 
Coast, Liberia, French Congo and Belgian 
Congo. All these countries contributed their 
quota of elephants to his enormous bag as the 
accompanying list shows. 

W.D.M.B. in Hit. 23rd March 1931. 



Locality. Bull Elephants. 

Mombasa-Malindi Coast . . 14 
Tana River . . . . 17 
Masindi District . . .23 
Mount Elgon . . . -42 
Mani-Mani . . . . 91 

Dodose 63 

Dabossa ..... 149 
Lado Enclave .... 266 
French Ivory Coast . . .80 

Liberia 27 

French Congo .... 189 
Belgian Congo . . . .22 


With regard to these figures Mr. Bell says : " I 
have not included cow elephants shot for meat or 
in defence of myself or attendants. The number 
so shot is 28, making the total 1,011 ". 

The largest number of bull elephants he ever 
shot in one day was 19. Other days yielded 17, 
16, 15. on three occasions, 14 and 12 on three 
occasions. His best month produced 44, all kilted 
in three consecutive days, and in his worst month 
he did not even see one. 

His most disappointing day he describes thus : 
"54 bull elephants (mostly huge) found and 



counted, all travelling steadily along. Got 
directly into path and waited until leaders bore 
ten and fifteen paces to front on either hand and 
then succeeded in dropping only 5 out of that 
magnificent millionaire herd. They split up in 
all directions and at Hell's own gait. Alas! 
what should I have done ? " His most pleasantly 
memorable experience "When my partner said : 
' Well, Bell, I'm damned ', after watching me 
from a tree-top run down and kill 6 large bulls 
out of 6 in long grass, at mid-day, in as many 
minutes ". 

His heaviest yield of ivory as the result of one 
day's shooting amounted to 1,643 Ibs. of soft ivory 
from ii head containing 21 tusks, one being a 
single tusker. The average weight was over 
77 Ibs. and the value 863. 

The following detailed results which he has 
kindly given me are, I think, of exceptional 

Yield from five best Safaris 
Weight of Ivory Value 

14,780 Ibs. . . .7,3<x> 

14,247 Ibs. . . . 7,082 

12,814 Ibs. . . . 6,923 

11,024 Ibs. . . . 4,792 

10,670 Ibs. . . . 4,230 



Best Year 

Ivory sold . . . 7,300 
Expenditure . . 3,100 

Profit 4,200 

Worst Year 

Expenditure . . 3,400 

Ivory sold . . . 1,563 

Loss 1,837 

These are wonderful figures, but the extra- 
ordinarly severe nature of the work may be 
judged from the fact that Mr. Bell informs me 
that his average yearly consumption of boot 
leather amounted to 24 pairs, and he estimates 
that the total mileage covered on foot, including 
going to and returning from hunting grounds, 
amounts to 73 miles for every elephant killed. 

His most unpleasant experience he describes as 
" Travelling hot-foot 8 hours at 6 miles per hour 
on enormous track in wet season to find a tuskless 
bull ! Killed to prevent a recurrence ! " The 
feet of his native assistants, carrying water bottle 
and spare rifle, lasted on an average for four 
months, at one month on and one month in the 
base camp. Their soles he says were then right 



down to the quick, in spite of sandals. One of 
his men alone stuck it for ten months on end, but 
then retired altogether. Since it may prove of 
interest to know some of his rules of life when 
engaged in this arduous work, I will quote the 
following from the notes he has given me : " Best 
method of keeping one's own feet in working 
condition in spite of rubs and blisters, is to wash 
socks every day and powder them thickly with 
boracic. Best diet for hunting sour milk and 
dried buck meat (biltong). Next best elephant 
trunk, cut small and stewed, with native vege- 
tables and flour. Worst diet for hunting the 
ingredients in what is known as doing yourself 
well ". 

Mr. Bell has related many of his experiences in 
his most excellent book, " The Wanderings of an 
Elephant Hunter ", which was published in 1923. 
There is nothing more remarkable in that book 
than his account of a day in the Lado Enclave 
in which he ran a herd of elephants to a walking 
pace. This notable day started by his killing a 
white rhino with a magnificent horn; by 8 a.m. 
he was at the heels of the herd of elephants and 
at sundown, or 6 p.m., he found himself passing 
the carcase of the rhino he had killed in the 
morning, having travelled all day in an enormous 
circle. He had the herd well in hand by 2 p.m. 



and at the finish they seemed quite incapable of 
anything more than a walking pace. He bagged 
15 bulls from the herd, but though he often 
attempted to repeat the feat with other herds he 
was never able to live with them except for a 
short distance. 

With regard to rifles, Mr. Bell tried many at 
one time and another including a double 
.450/400 and magazine rifles of various calibre. 
He formed a very definite preference for maga- 
zine weapons and for many years used the .275 
and the .256 in every kind of country and against 
every kind of game. His greatest successes were 
achieved with the 7 mm. Rigby-Mauser or .276, 
firing the old round-nosed solid bullet. 

As a big game shot it is difficult to write re- 
garding his skill. Most first-class men are reticent 
on this subject, but those who have read Mr. 
Bell's book, "The Wanderings of an Elephant 
Hunter", will have quickly sensed the fact that 
it was written by a man of exceptional ability 
with the rifle. An exact knowledge of the 
anatomy of game, a rule never to fire unless he 
knew exactly where he was placing his bullet, 
and a temperament that enabled him to retain a 
perfect control over himself in every moment 
of danger or excitement were important con- 
tributory factors to his wonderful success. He 



invariably carried his own rifle, and the natural 
aptitude which he must undoubtedly have 
possessed, together with the years of incessant 
practice which his life as a hunter entailed, com- 
bined in giving him an almost complete control 
over his game, irrespective of the angle at which 
it presented a shot. For actual examples indicat- 
ing his skill I am able to give two instances, but 
since these relate to experiences with buffaloes 
and lions I must refer the reader to the respective 
chapters devoted to these two animals. Outstand- 
ing ability with the rifle would not alone account 
for Mr. Bell's success; an iron constitution and a 
physique capable of withstanding the constant 
exposure and strain to which it was subjected, a 
thorough knowledge of the game he followed, and 
last, but by no means least, a complete under- 
standing of, and ability to handle the natives, 
were all vital factors in his truly wonderful career. 
(For further notes on W. D. M. Bell refer to 
Chapters III and VI.) 


One of the most successful elephant hunters in 
the equatorial regions of Africa was Mr. James 
Sutherland who killed 447 bull elephants.* He 
first went to South Africa, arriving at Cape Town 

The Adventures of an Elephant Hunter by James Sutherland 



in 1896, and subsequently visited Johannesburg, 
Mafeking, Matabeleland, Beira, Mashonaland, 
Lake Tanganyika and the Congo. During this 
time he was engaged in various occupations, and 
though he states that he did some promiscuous 
hunting from Beira it was not until he arrived in 
Portuguese East Africa in 1902 that he decided 
to become an elephant hunter. In 1904 he moved 
into what was then German East Africa, where 
he continued to hunt until 1912. During these 
ten years he got some splendid tusks, the heaviest 
he mentions weighing 152 Ibs. + rjyjlbs.* In 
1912 Mr. Sutherland published some of his experi- 
ences in a book entitled " The Adventures of an 
Elephant Hunter ". This book is, I believe, out 
of print and becoming rather scarce, but in addi- 
tion to recounting many of his experiences it 
contains some excellent notes on the natural 
history aspect of big game, together with some 
most informative reading on the native tribes 
and the native mind. 

In the course of his hunting career Sutherland 
experienced some very narrow escapes. He was 
twice caught by elephants and once by a buffalo. 
In one of the elephant incidents he was hurled 
into the air and fell on the animal's back; an ex- 
perience probably unique of its kind. 

The Adventures of an Elephant Hunter (p. 108). 



The occurrence of an elephant being stunned 
by a shot and being mistaken for dead is not 
altogether uncommon, but Sutherland records an 
instance where he actually sat on the head of a 
supposedly dead elephant for a short rest. On 
returning to the spot some short while afterwards 
the animal had gone and he never saw it again. 

For elephant and rhinoceros shooting Suther- 
land preferred a heavy rifle. After using and ex- 
perimenting with all kinds he says : "I find the 
most effective to be the double .577 with a 750 
grains bullet and a charge in axite powder equiv- 
alent to a hundred grains of cordite ". A single 
trigger, ejector weapon of this type, with hand de- 
tachable locks, that was built by Messrs. Westley 
Richards & Co., gave him every satisfaction and 
contributed largely in the making of his great 
bag. It is probable that his bag of elephants is 
now considerably in excess of the figure I have 
quoted, but I have been unable to obtain particu- 
lars as he is I believe at the present time some- 
where in the Congo. 


For some reason or other A. H. Neumann has 
frequently been credited with shooting a far 



greater number of elephants than was actually 
the case. The probable explanation of the mis- 
conception is as follows. Neumann spent the 
greater part of his life in Africa and being a man 
of an exceedingly retiring and sensitive nature his 
movements and achievements were known to 
only a few people. He was one of the earliest 
elephant hunters in East Africa, and when in 
1897 he published his book, " Elephant Hunting 
in East Equatorial Africa ", which deals most 
fully with his experiences over a period of three 
years, he became established in the eyes of the 
public as an elephant hunter and nothing more, 
whereas, as a matter of actual fact, he was 43 
years of age and had spent the greater part of 
twenty-four years in Africa before he organized 
his first expedition after elephants. Following 
the publication of his book, the world at large 
learnt nothing more from his own pen re- 
garding the rest of his life and practically nothing 
from other sources. After his death his great 
friend, Mr. J. G. Millais, wrote some interesting 
notes on his life which were published in his book 
" Wanderings and Memories ". Meanwhile, his 
fame as an elephant hunter had spread and, as is 
sometimes the case, it was more on account of 
what was surmised rather than on what was 
actually known that he came to be credited 



with a bag far in excess of what he 
actually shot. That Neumann was a skilful and 
highly successful elephant hunter is an undoubted 
fact, but that he killed the great number of ele- 
phants that have sometimes been attributed to 
him is quite erroneous. The exact number that 
he did shoot I have been unable to ascertain, but 
it is possible to form a very close estimate as I 
shall presently show. The one man that I 
thought might know the actual figure was Mr. 
J. G. Millais, but in September, 1930, he informed 
me that he himself did not know and that he did 
not think the information was obtainable from 
any other source. 

Born at Hockley Rectory in Bedfordshire in 
June, 1850, Neumann landed in South Africa in 
1869 and until 1876 was variously employed in 
coffee planting, cotton and tobacco cultivation, 
gold digging, and running a trading post in 
Swaziland. From 1877 till the Zulu War in 1879 
(in which he was made captain) he was mainly 
engaged in shooting in the Transvaal and Swazi- 
land, and from 1880 to 1887 with shooting and 
travelling on the Limpopo and Sabi Rivers. Of 
this period of his life we know little, but in writing 
about it in his book he states that he shot much 
game in South-eastern Africa and of most kinds 
peculiar to the country with the notable exception 



of elephants. It is clear from his writings that 
he had some intention of one day writing about 
his South African experiences, but unfortunately 
he never did so. 

It was not until 1890, when he entered the 
East Africa Company and was engaged in explor- 
ation for the rail route, that he shot his first 
elephant. In 1892 he became a magistrate in 
Zululand, but not caring for the work he decided 
to return to East Africa and organize his first ele- 
phant hunting expedition. Arriving at Mombasa 
in 1893 he devoted the three following years to 
hunting and wandering in the far interior 
amongst the Ndorobo savages in the neighbour- 
hood of Mount Kenia and the Lorogi Mountains. 
He penetrated north to Lake Rudolph and while 
hunting from Bumi, where he enjoyed some 
splendid sport, he was seriously injured by a cow 
elephant. The .303 which he was using missed 
fire and the cow knocked him down and crushed 
in his ribs. He was carefully tended by the 
natives and lived on milk for weeks, but it was 
two months before he could lie in any position 
except on his back. In connection with his trip 
to Lake Rudolph, Millais says that it was a great 
disappointment to him to find on his return to 
Mombasa that Count Teleki had already 
described the lake, of which Neumann himself 


thought he was the discoverer.* I do not think 
this is correct as Neumann's book seems to indi- 
cate quite clearly that not only did he know of 
the existence and name of the lake, but one of 
his followers had actually been with Teleki at the 
time of its discovery. It is this period, 1893-1896, 
which his book covers, and since every elephant 
incident during this time is fully described, a 
careful perusal of it will show that he shot 69 
elephants in these three years. 

Towards the end of 1896 he came home, and in 
1897 his very fine book was published by Messrs. 
Rowland Ward. It is one of the best works that 
has ever been written on the subject of elephant 
hunting, but, unfortunately, it is now decidedly 
scarce and a good copy commands from five to 
seven times its published price. 

From this point we depend on Mr. J. G. Millais 
for the details of the remainder of his life. 

In November, 1899, he went to South Africa to 
take part in the Boer War and he had a very 
narrow escape at Spion Kop, a bullet going 
through his hat and passing through his hair. 
He entered Ladysmith with the relief force and 
at the end of hostilities came home. 

It was not until early in 1902 that he returned 
to East Africa and went into the Mount Kenia 

* " Wanderings and Memories " : 1919 : p. 143. 



country. He was successful in his hunting, and 
in March, 1903, when he came down to Mombasa 
he brought with him over a ton of ivory. Now 
even allowing for the fact that some of the ivory 
was small, a ton would hardly represent more 
than sixty tusks, so that his bag for this period 
was probably round about 30 elephants. After 
refitting he continued hunting in the regions of 
Turkana, Northern Gwaso Nyiro, the Lorian 
Swamp and Turkwel until July, 1906, and the 
yield from these years was ivory worth 4,500.* 
Now if we take this sum as representing 9,000 Ibs. 
of ivory and the average weight of the tusks as 
being TOO Ibs. the pair, it equals a bag of 90 ele- 
phants. In October, 1906, he arrived home again 
and he died in London in 1907. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that he de- 
voted about seven years to elephant hunting, and 
allowing for the fact that he kept some of his best 
tusks as specimens, and that he killed a few ele- 
phants when in the service of the East African 
Company, he may have killed 200 elephants. 

I have dealt with this matter at some length as 
it is a subject about which such varying views 
have been expressed. 

Neumann enjoyed some splendid days, getting 
14 elephants on one day, 12 and a black 

" Wanderings and Memories " : 1919 : p. 156. 



rhinoceros with a 40 in. horn on another and 10 
elephants on another. That he was a fine shot 
admits of no doubt. On the day in which he shot 
the 12 elephants and r rhino his expenditure of 
cartridges was only 20, and on another occasion in 
the Lorian Swamp he scored a double right and 
left at bull elephants. I have seen his day's bag 
for the former occasion quoted as n elephants 
and a rhino, but though it is true that one of the 
dead elephants was not found the same day, the 
ivory from all twelve was eventually recovered. 

In the course of his career he got some good 
though not remarkable tusks; the best he men- 
tions being 117^ Ibs. + 109 Ibs., and he got a good 
many others of nearly equal weight. The longest 
but not heaviest bull tusk of which I can find in- 
formation measured 9 ft. 5 in. and his best cow 
tusks were a remarkably fine pair weighing 
38 Ibs. + 39 Ibs. 

From 1893 till 1902 Neumann shot most of his 
elephants with a double .577 by Gibbs and a .303 
service Lee-Metford. He also tried a double 
lo-bore which he acquired to take the place of 
one of his other weapons that was damaged, but 
he did not like it. In 1902 he acquired a double 
.450 by Rigby which suited him exactly. 

In the later years of his life he cared but little 
for most forms of shooting, but of the elephant he 



says : " Him I worship I have become a true 
Ndorobo in that ". 

He was a keen student of natural history and 
he also accomplished valuable work in Africa 
apart from the years he devoted to hunting. 
Wherever he went he won the respect and admir- 
ation of the natives as those following in his 
footsteps were quick to appreciate. 


Of the early Boer hunters in South Africa, 
Petrus Jacobs seems without doubt to have been 
the most famous, and no less an authority than 
F. C. Selous has described him as " the most ex- 
perienced elephant-hunter in South Africa ".* 

Jacobs must have been born somewhere about 
the year 1800 since he was over seventy-three 
years of age when Selous met him. At that time 
he was still actively employed, and just as keen 
on hunting as he had always been. Unlike many 
Boers, he loved the hunting of dangerous game 
for its own sake, and never declined the oppor- 
tunity of attacking a lion. Most of his hunting 
was done from horseback, but at quite an 
advanced age he hunted in the " fly " country and 
killed many elephants on foot The exact num- 

" A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa." 



her he shot we do not know but he is believed to 
have killed between 400 and 500 bull elephants.* 
Some further notes on this remarkable old man 
in connection with his lion hunting experiences 
occur in Chapter VI. 


William Finaughty was the greatest English 
elephant hunter in South Africa and it is some- 
what curious that those who were contemporary 
with him should not have given more information 
about his life. Selous mentions him, but does not 
go into details, and it was left to an American 
gentleman in the person of Mr. G. L. Harrison to 
repair the omission. 

Mr. Harrison met Finaughty in 1913 and 
though he was then a very slight old man and 
weakened by fever, he still retained a wonderful 
memory, and his friends told Mr. Harrison that 
he was still a wonderful shot with either rifle or 
gun. Finaughty gave Harrison the numbers of 
the " Rhodesian Journal " containing his hunting 
experiences. One or two of the numbers were 
missing, but as the Journal had gone out of exis- 
tence they could not be replaced. 

Finaughty was one of the first white men to 

J. G. Millais : " The Life of F. C. Scions " : 1918 : p. 75. 



hunt elephants in Matabelemnd and Mr. Harrison 
was so impressed by his reminiscences that on his 
return to America he had them reproduced in 
book form under the title of " The Recollections 
of William Finaughty Elephant Hunter, 1864- 
1875". Two hundred and fifty copies of this 
most excellent little volume were privately 
printed, and this I think is our only source of in- 
formation concerning the adventurous life of this 
great hunter. 

At the age of 21, Finaughty left Grahamstown 
early in 1864 and travelled north through the 
Free State, the plains of which then teemed with 
game. Concerning this wonderful country he 
says : "I could never have believed that such a 
quantity of wild animals would congregate to- 
gether. As far as the eye could see it was one 
moving mass, tens of thousands of beautiful wild 
creatures of many kinds, consisting for the most 
part of black wildebeest, blesbok, springbok, a 
sprinkling of ostrich, quagga, and blue wilde- 
beest ". 

In due course he entered Matabeleland and 
eventually reached Tati. At this time Mzilikatse 
was the chief of the Matabele and he treated 
Finaughty and his party in a friendly manner. 
This was Finaughty's first introduction to the 
Matabele and he saw their famous army in its 




prime. He was present at a dance of about 
25,000 warriors in their war dress, and in connec- 
tion with this great function no less than 540 oxen 
were killed. Finaughty shot his first two ele- 
phants on this trip but his party lost fourteen 
horses out of seventeen owing to horse sickness. 
In 1865 and 1866 he made two expeditions on his 
own account with the principal object of trading, 
but he shot a few elephants and in 1867 he de- 
cided to become a professional hunter. From 
this date till 1876 the greater part of his time was 
devoted to hunting, though he gave it up at one 
period to give himself a rest from the arduous life. 
He established a large store and for a time carried 
on a profitable business but he returned to the 
hunter's life. 

The exact number of elephants he killed in his 
lifetime we do not know, but from a careful 
perusal of his " Recollections " it is clear that he 
shot over 400. In one year he shot in elephants 
yielding 5,000 Ibs, of ivoiy. On the Umbila he 
met with great success and it is probable that the 
elephants in this part of the country had never 
heard a shot fired before as on one occasion he 
bagged 6 bulls in a river bed without their show- 
ing alarm at the shots. His record bag for one 
day was 10. 5 bulls and 5 cows. Nearly all his 
hunting was done on horseback and he was with- 



out doubt a fine horseman and a splendid shot. 
On one occasion with only five bullets with him 
he came upon elephants unexpectedly. He shot 
5 elephants with his five bullets and on examin- 
ing one which he had shot at close quarters he 
found the bullet locjged under the skin on the far 
side. He promptly cut this out and with it 
bagged a sixth elephant, thus performing the 
unique feat of getting 6 elephants with only five 
bullets. The heaviest pair of tusks he ever got 
weighed 250 Ibs. 

Most of his shooting was clone with an old 
muzzle-loader firing a 4 oz. bullet propelled bv a 
handful of black powder, the recoil from which 
made it difficult for him to keep his seat in the 
saddle. In 1876 he used breech-loading weapons 
for the first time, but he found a i2-bore firing 
home-made and heavily-loaded cartridges terri- 
bly punishing in its recoil so he then tried a light 
Westley Richards fall block rifle of which he 
says : " This was my first experience of a small, 
but really effective, breech-loader without a bad 
recoil to it It delighted me and I quickly 
profited by it ". On his first day with it he shot 
i bull and 6 cow elephants, and he says : " It was 
a revelation to me as to what could be done with 
a small gun after my long experience with a large 
elephant gun ". 



This was his last year's serious shooting, but so 
profitable had been his hunting and trading that 
he was able to face his remaining years with 
equanimity. From 1883 to 1887 he lived in the 
Traansvaal and then following a few years spent 
in Johannesburg he retired to his farm near 


Gordon Gumming hunted in South Africa be- 
tween the years 1843 and 1848 and during this 
period he killed 105 elephants.* Few hunters 
gained a greater notoriety than he, but looking 
back on his life at this distance of time we are 
able to review his career in better perspective 
than was possible to the public who first read the 
account of his experiences. 

His book, " Five Years of a Hunter's Life in 
South Africa ", was first published in 1850 and it 
quickly gave rise to much discussion, and doubts 
were sometimes expressed as to the accuracy of 
some of the incidents described. Since that time 
the book has run through a large number of 
editions and has probably been as widely read as 
any book of its kind. Written in a somewhat 
romantic style, page after page recounts the de- 

" Fire Yean of Hunter'* Life in Sooth Africa." 



tails of what he killed, and this is probably the 
reason for the not uncommonly expressed 
opinion that he shot an enormous and unsports- 
manlike quantity of game. As a matter of actual 
fact there is no real reason for thinking that he 
killed more than many of his contemporaries and 
it is probable that he actually shot less. If, as is 
the case in his book, the account of a great deal 
of shooting over a period of five years is com- 
pressed into a few hundred pages and then read 
through in the matter of a few hours, it is very 
liable to convey a wrong impression. With the 
exception of his bag of elephants we have not any 
other exact figures of the game that he did kill, 
but the following are the largest bags for indi- 
vidual days mentioned in his book : 
14 Springboks in one day. 

i Springbuck, 3 Wildebeests, i Hartebeest, 
i Blesbok in one day. 

7 Hippopotami in one day. 

5 Buffaloes in one day. 

i Elephant and 4 Rhinoceros in one night. 

4 Elephants in one night. 

The 14 springboks were shot from countless 
thousands on migration, where the number could 
easily have been doubled or trebled. Now there 
is nothing very extravagant about these figures 
for Africa, where the native ever looks to the 



white man for a supply of meat. Of Gordon 
Gumming, Mr. Millais has written as follows: 
" from all accounts, gathered from independent 
sources, it is now admitted that Gordon Gumming 
was a fearless hunter and did in the main accom- 
plish all the principal exploits to which he laid 
claim ". 

Born on the 15th March, 1820, he was the 
second son of Sir William G. Gordon Gumming, 
Bart., of Altyre, and in his early life roe-deer 
stalking and salmon fishing were his chief amuse- 
ments. In 1839 he sailed for India to join his 
regiment, the 4th Madras Light Cavalry, and 
touching at the Cape en route he had the oppor- 
tunity of hunting some of the smaller antelopes. 
In India he obtained some sport and added con- 
siderably to his natural history collection, but the 
climate did not suit him so he retired from the 
service and returned home. In Scotland deer- 
stalking satisfied him for a time, but with a view 
to obtaining sport in the far West he obtained a 
commission in the Royal Veteran Newfoundland 
Companies. The chances of sport did not 
materialize, however, so he effected an exchange 
into the Cape Riflemen and in 1843 was again in 
South Africa. Once again he was disappointed 
in his expectation of finding opportunities for 

* The Life erf F. C. Seloos " : 1918 : p. 66. 


shooting, so he decided to sell out of the Army 
and devote his time to hunting and collecting. 

On the 23rd October, 1843, he started on his 
first expedition, and five years later on the com- 
pletion of his fifth and last trip into the interior 
he returned home. 

An exhibition of all his African trophies was 
held in London at 232, Piccadilly, and afterwards 
they were removed to Scotland, Following his 
death at Fort Augustus on the 24th March, 1866, 
at the early age of 46, the collection was pur- 
chased by Barnum the showman, but unfortun- 
ately it was, I believe, completely destroyed in his 
great fire. 

Of the many tales of fact and fiction concern- 
ing his deer-stalking escapades I do not intend to 
write, but for a pen picture of the man I am 
tempted to quote that brilliant essayist, Mr. 
Patrick R. Chalmers: " to fall in with Roualyn in 
some dark and forbidden come must have been 
a romantic thing and a little awesome. Out of 
the mist would stride a great, eagle-beaked, kilted 
fellow six-foot-four stood Roualyn. His hair 
fell to his broad shoulders, his beard to his slim 
waist. He wore a flat grey bonnet, he carried a 
rifle and, over his back, was swung a spy-glass 
and, maybe, the head of a royal for Roualyn 
took the hill without ghillies and left his venison 


for the ravens or the shepherd who might choose 
to fetch it and tell him of more ". 

Of Gordon Cumming's ability as an elephant 
hunter it is not easy to speak. Most of his shoot- 
ing was done on horseback with the assistance of 
dogs to distract the animal's attention and some 
he killed at night by waiting at their drinking 
places. Judging by his writings he must have 
been a pretty good shot at most kinds of game, 
and though he sometimes seems to have been 
tempted to fire at excessive ranges, he usually 
strove to get to close quarters with elephants. 
The number of shots however that he sometimes 
expended before he was able to finish a bull ele- 
phant was certainly enormous and on this 
account he was rarely able to bag more than one 
animal out of a herd. The following are striking 
examples of the gladiatorial nature of some of his 
encounters : " I fought one of the former (an ele- 
phant) in dense wait-a-bit jungle from half-past 
eleven till the sun was under, when his tough old 
spirit fled, and he fell pierced with fifty-seven 
balls ", or again : " I was therefore obliged to 
hunt him on foot, and slew him with thirty bullets, 
after an extremely severe and dangerous combat 
of about two hours ", or yet again : " In the after- 
noon I was engaged for three to four hours com- 
bating with a vicious elephant which I finished 



with thirty-five bullets in the shoulder, in an im- 
practicable jungle of wait-a-bit thorns ". 

On some occasions, of course, he accounted for 
his game more quickly, but the probability is that 
his weapons lacked penetrative power. Concern- 
ing his battery in Africa he mentions three double- 
barrelled rifles by Purdey, William Moore, and 
Dickson of Edinburgh; a single-barrelled I2~bore 
of German manufacture, a double rifle with spare 
shot barrels by Westley Richards and a 4-bore, 
all of course being muzzle-loaders. We do not 
know their respective charges of powder but two 
of his weapons burst. Armed as he was, a bag 
of 105 elephants must have represented an enor- 
mous amount of hard and hazardous work. 

According to " O Benguella " of 6th March, 
1909, the professional Danish hunter, Karl Larsen, 
had, at that date, killed over 300 elephants. He 
had then spent seventeen years hunting and 
collecting in West and East Africa and during the 
latter part of this period he used a double- 
barrelled .600 by W. J. Jeffery & Co. Ltd. for the 
hunting of elephants and other dangerous game. 

Of the Boer elephant hunters, Jan Viljoen had 
a great reputation and he continued hunting on 
foot in the " fly " country after many of his con- 
temporaries had given up the game for good. It 



was the custom of the Boer hunters to travel into 
the interior with their wives, children, stock, etc., 
and establish a standing camp which acted as a 
base for the ?ctual hunting expeditions. On the 
authority of William Finaughty it can be stated 
that in 1867 Viljoen and his party shot 210 ele- 
phants, and this probably constitutes the record 
bag of elephants made in a single season by one 
hunting party. 

About the year 1878 there occurred in the 
region of the upper Okavango the greatest and 
most wanton butchery of elephants known in the 
history of South Africa. The Van Zyls's and 
some other Dutch hunters drove a herd of 104 
elephants into a deep morass where they were 
helpless and before the end of the day every one 
had been killed irrespective of sex or size.* Re- 
ferring to this day Mr. H. A. Bryden has said 
that " there were few with good tusks and the 
slaughter seems to have been as unprofitable as it 
was unpardonable. 

Of the English hunters in South Africa no name 
is more widely known or respected than that of 
F.C.Selous, but though his long and distinguished 
African career started with the hunting of ele- 
phants as a profession, his fame as a hunter 
probably rests more on the fact that he acquired 

" Gnu and Camera in Southern Africa " : p. 489. 



the finest collection of South African trophies ever 
shot by one man. For this reason I have thought 
it more appropriate to deal with his achievements 
as a hunter under the heading of " Other African 
Game Animals ", though here it may be stated 
that he shot 106 elephants in the course of his 

Other English hunters with a considerable 
experience ot elephant hunting in South Africa 
included Capt (afterwards Sir) Cornwallis 
Harris, William Cotton Oswell (referred to at 
greater length in Chapter V) and William Charles 
Baldwin, all of whom wrote valuable accounts of 
their travels and experiences. 

Of the many successful men in the Equatorial 
regions of Africa the names of Major C. H, 
Stigand and T. A. Barns may be mentioned. 
Major Stigand was badly mauled at one time and 
another by an elephant, a lion and a rhinoceros, 
and he was eventually killed when engaged on a 
punitive expedition against a native tribe. Bams 
will always be remembered as the man who shot 
the great bull elephant which is now preserved 
for the nation in the Natural History Museum in 

All these men shot a considerable number of 
elephants but not in numbers to equal the bags 
mentioned in the earlier pages of this chapter. 




COR countless generations the Indian elephant 
has been caught and domesticated and there 
is little evidence that their numbers in a wild state 
have fluctuated in India to anything like the same 
extent as in Ceylon. In some parts of India they 
have at times been sufficiently numerous for a 
reward to be offered for their destruction and as 
much as 7 per head was once paid by the 
Madras Government. At the time, native hunters 
armed with small cannon mounted on tripods, 
which fired half-pound balls, are said to have 
sometimes killed as many as five or six in a day.* 
The value attaching to the domesticated animal 
however, and measures of protection, have re- 
sulted in their numbers being reasonably well 
maintained. I do not think bags in any way 
comparable with those of Ceylon have ever been 
made in India. G. P. Sanderson, author of 
'Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India", 
killed no more than " about twenty ", but in 
Ceylon they formerly existed in enormous num- 

M Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India/* 

4 6 


bers and rewards for their destruction of 7/- or 
io/- were in force for a considerable time. 
Ceylon elephants are usually tuskless; an adult 
bull stands about 9 ft. at the shoulder and they 
are more easily killed than African elephants. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain the 
record bag of elephants for Ceylon was made by 
Major Rogers, who is believed to have killed 
about 1,500. 

Before proceeding to discuss this statement and 
other figures I must point out that all the big bags 
of Ceylon elephants were made about a hundred 
years ago and it is therefore impossible to obtain 
first-hand information concerning them. 

In " The Field " of 22nd September, 1894, 
under the heading of " Largest bag of elephants 
made in Ceylon " f there occurred the following 
letter, written by E. L. Layard of Otterbourne, 
Budleigh Salterton : " ' A. Fogey ' in his gossip 
about the .303 rifle, etc. (p. 338, No. 2175, Sept. i) 
says the largest bag of elephants ever made by 
one man in Ceylon (numbering over 300) was 
made by a gentleman who did all his slaughter 
with a 16 smooth bore. If ' A. Fogey ' means 
that they were killed in one day, I know nothing 
of it; but if he means the bag to represent the 
total number killed by one man he is sadly under 
the mark. The numbers killed by the old ele- 



phant hunters (most of them now dead and gone) 
far exceeded this. Major Rogers killed over 
1,500, Capt Gailwey 1,300, Capt. Skinner 1,200, 
Capt. Layard 1,000, and many others of later 
days, such as the brothers Baker, made nearly as 
large bags. Major Rogers always used i6-bores, 
cut down to 20 or 22 inches in length. I had one 
of his amputated guns. It was only fit for ball, 
would not throw shot with any effect. Most of 
the old hunters used small (16) smooth bores ". 
It will be noted that Capt. Layard, who is men- 
tioned as having shot 1,000 elephants, and the 
writer of the foregoing letter bear the same name, 
so it is reasonable to suppose that they were 
related and that E. L. Layard wrote with full 
knowledge of the facts, but some of the bags he 
mentions differ from those quoted by Harry 
Storey in his excellent book " Hunting and 
Shooting in Ceylon " (1907). From this work I 
take the following : " After 1831 the destruction 
of elephants was encouraged owing to their 
depredations and numbers, and Major Forbes 
mentions the killing of 106 elephants in 1837 by 

a party of four Europeans in three days 

Coming to later times, in the 'forties Major 
Rogers is credited with having slain upwards of 
1,400; Captain Gailwey over 700; and Major 
Skinner, ' the roadmaker ', almost as many ". 



If we turn to the writings of that other great 
authority on Ceylon sport, Sir Samuel W. Baker, 
we find that though he mentions both Major 
Rogers and Captain Gallwey he gives no informa- 
tion concerning their bags. I have been unable 
to trace any other references to these men and 
their exploits. 

With regard to Sir Samuel W. Baker's own bag, 
his exact figures for elephants are unknown, but 
on page 86, Vol. I, of his book, " Wild Beasts and 
their Ways", he says: "I have killed some 
hundreds in my early life ". 

What the record individual bag for a single 
day's shooting may have been I do not know, 
but Major Forbes writing in 1840 states that 
" fifteen wild elephants were actually docked by 
a gentleman in one forenoon. The tail of the 
elephant, like the brush of a fox, is the signal of 
success ".* 

A collective bag of great magnitude is men- 
tioned by Sir Samuel W. Baker. Writing in 1855, 
he says: f" Although the number of these animals 
is still so immense in Ceylon, they must neverthe- 
less have been much reduced within the last 
twenty years. In those days the country was 
overrun with them, and some idea of their num- 
bers may be gathered from the fact that three 

" Eleven Yearn in Cevlon " : iJUo : Vol. I : p. 288, 

t " Bight Year*' Wandering* m Ceylon " : 1855 : p, 127. 



first-rate shots in three days bagged 104 elephants. 
This was told me by one of the parties concerned, 
and it throws our modern shooting into the 
shade ". 

I have already stated that we do not know 
the exact number of elephants that Sir Samuel 
Baker shot, but since his name is so closely 
identified with Ceylon and its elephants, this 
seems the most appropriate place to say some- 
thing about his remarkable career. 


Sir Samuel Baker's chief claim to fame and the 
grateful remembrance of his country rests on 
more than his big game hunting exploits. As an 
explorer, administrator and publicist he accom- 
plished much, but this aspect of his life has 
already been fully and ably dealt with in the 
memoir written by T. Douglas Murray and A. 
Silva White. As a hunter, his experience of 
practically all the dangerous game animals is 
probably unrivalled. 

Born in London on the 8th June, 1821, he spent 
many of his early years at Highnam Court, and 
on some 2,000 acres of surrounding land he first 
learnt to shoot. Following a couple of years in 
the Mauritus he decided to go to Ceylon in order 



to satisfy his craving to taste wild sports in a wild 
country. He arrived in that island in 1846 and 
subsequently enjoyed every form of sport that 
the country afforded. On the completion of this 
first trip he came home, but he was so fascinated 
with the life and the country that he decided to 
return and settle in the beautiful and healthy dis- 
trict of Newera Ellia. During the eight years that 
he remained in Ceylon he engaged in elephant 
and buffalo shooting, deer-stalking, hunting the 
sambar and wild boar with his own hounds and 
the hunting knife, and coursing the axis deer with 
greyhounds. He wrote some splendid accounts 
of his experiences in all these sports in his stirring 
and full-blooded book " The Rifle and Hound in 
Ceylon ". 

If elephants were not as numerous in Baker's 
time as they had once been, they still existed in 
very great numbers and, as has already been 
stated, he shot some hundreds of these animals. 
They were usually found in dense jungle or high 
lemon-grass which made it necessary to get with- 
in about ten paces in order to obtain a shot at the 
brain. For this class of work Baker usually 
employed three double jo-bore rifles (muzzle- 
loaders) and, when once a herd had been 
attacked, much of the subsequent success de- 
pended on the skill and staunchness of the gun 


bearers in handling the spare rifles. A stern end- 
on chase usually followed the first shots, and an 
enormous effort was required to keep touch with 
the flying herd and to gain positions from which 
further vital shots could be attempted. There 
are many such hunts described in " The Rifle and 
Hound in Ceylon " and that Baker was a first- 
class shot is apparent. On the ist December, 
1851, he bagged 6 out of (> fired at, and there are 
many other instances recorded which illustrate 
his skill and endurance. On one occasion he was 
caught by a bull elephant which struck him on 
the thigh with its tnsk and hurled him a distance 
of eight or ten paces. The beast then proceeded 
to beat the grass with its trunk in search of its 
victim. The animal's acute power of scent how- 
ever had probably been momentarily spoiled by 
the powder and smoke of the shot Baker had fired 
when the beast was all but upon him. However 
this may be, the elephant eventually abandoned 
his search and Baker was lucky to have escaped 
without even a broken bone. Had he not jumped 
aside after firing he would probably have been 
struck in the stomach instead of the thigh, and 
then the result might well have been different. 

A sport of which he never tired was the hunt- 
ing of the solitary old rogue elephants which 
frequently inhabited the vicinity of tanks or 



reservoirs. During his first year in Ceylon he 
was armed with two single-barrelled muzzle- 
loaders and, though these were weapons of great 
power, there was no room for error in the pursuit 
of such dangerous game. The use of these rifles, 
however, taught him to rely on his first shot and 
gave him absolute confidence in his own powers. 
In the neighbourhood of Monampitya he once 
killed an immense tank rogue with a single shot 
in the temple. This was by far the largest ele- 
phant he ever saw in Ceylon, and of quite excep- 
tional dimensions for that country. Describing 
its appearance when alive, he says : ''although his 
head and carcase were enormous, still his length 
of leg appeared disproportionately great " and 
when dead " His height may be imagined from 
this rough method of measuring. A gun-bearer 
climbed upon his back as the elephant lay u[K>n 
all fours, and holding a long stick across his spine 
at right angles, I could just touch it with the 
points of my fingers by reaching to my utmost 
height. Thus, as he lay, his back was seven feet 
two inches, perpendicular height, from the 
ground. This would make his height, when erect, 
about twelve feet on the spine an enormous 
height for an elephant, as twelve feet on the top 
of the back is about equal to eleven feet six inches 
at the shoulder ". 



Other kinds of game abounded in various parts 
of the island. Of the axis deer, he says : " In the 
neighbourhood of Paliar, and Illepecad6iv6 on 
the north-west coast, I have shot them till I was 
satiated, and it ceased to be sport ". Writing of 
the same animal in " Wild Beasts and their 
Ways " he mentions having had nine bucks 
hanging up in camp as the produce of a single 
day's sport. 

His buffalo shooting experiences are dealt with 
in the chapter devoted to that animal, but men- 
tion must here be made of the wonderful hunting 
he enjoyed with his powerful pack of hounds. 
Hunting entirely on foot, with his hunting knife 
as the only support for the dogs, he killed 
approximately 400 sambur* and a large number 
of wild boars, though the latter were never 
deliberately sought for owing to the heavy 
casualties they inflicted on the pack. 

In 1855 Baker left Ceylon and the next year 
found him in Constantinople. Following a period 
at home in which he enjoyed some shooting and 
fishing in Scotland he returned to the near East 
in 1859 and for a couple of years was engaged in 
the construction of the railway across the 
Dobruja. During this period, with the exception 
of some wild-fowl shooting and some fishing, he 

" Wild Be*t* and their Way* " : 1890 : Vol. II : p g&. 



had few opportunities for sport, but on the com- 
pletion of this work he went to Asia Minor where 
he shot wild boar, roe-deer, woodcock, etc. 

At this period of his life his thoughts constantly 
turned to Africa. The big game of that country 
and the mystery of the Nile sources fascinated 
him and he quickly decided to direct his attention 
to these matters. 

He arrived in Africa in 1861 and during that 
and the following year devoted himself to explor- 
ing the Abyssinian water-ways and to big game 
hunting. Between 1863 and 1865 he was engaged 
in his epic journey of exploration which led to 
his discovery of the Albert N'Yanza, and such 
shooting as he obtained was incidental to the 
main object of the expedition. From 1865 to 
1869 he was at home. Baker was always a keen 
deer-stalker, and in 1868 as the guest of the Duke 
of Sutherland and Lord Middleton he killed 13 
stags out of 14 fired at. In 1869 he returned to 
Africa to take command of the historical expedi- 
tion against the slave traders of the interior. 
This great undertaking kept him in Africa till 
1873. The whole history of these wonderful years 
in Africa is to be found in his own books : " The 
Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia", "The Albert 
N'Yanza " and " Ismailia ", and the results of his 
labours are too well known to call for comment 

55 *.<.*/(, 

With regard to his bag in Africa I had hoped 
that it might be possible to obtain fuller details 
than his own books give, but there are no game 
diaries in existence.* It would seem that he shot 
about 50 elephants in Africa, since on page 276 
of " The Albert N'Yanza " he says that he has 
" measured certainly a hundred bull tusks, and 
. . . found them buried in the head a depth of 
twenty-four inches ". In later years he had a 
good deal of experience of the domesticated ele- 
phants in India and he then declared that he 
would never again shoot at an elephant unless it 
was a dangerous rogue. On his most successful 
day with African elephants he killed 5, and his 
various writings show that his total bag in Africa 
included rhinoceroses, hippopotami, buffaloes, 
lions, giraffes, some 13 varieties of antelopes and 
gazelles, waterbuck, i wild ass, i ostrich, croco- 
diles, etc. 

Between 1873 ar *d 1879 Baker remained in 
England, but in the latter year he started on a 
trip round the world which lasted about three 
years. He tested the sporting capabilities of 
most of the countries he visited and in North 
America he got some splendid wapiti, bears and 
a bison, in addition to other game. His best 
wapiti head measured 59! inches in length and 

* J R B in Hit. loth November 1950. 



was 13 inches round the burr, whilst another fine 
I4~pointer was 53 inches in length, 52 inches from 
tip to tip, and 12 J inches round the burr. 

On the completion of his world tour he settled 
down at his home " Sandford Orleigh ". Here 
he usually spent the spring and summer, but the 
winter months were generally spent in India or 
Egypt. In the course of his many visits to the 
Central Provinces he shot 22 tigers and every one 
that he fired at he bagged,* He also shot con- 
siderable numbers of leopards, sloth-bears, sam- 
bur, swamp-deer, blackbuck and other Indian 

When at home he enjoyed a certain amount of 
shooting. On the 17th November, 1893, he was 
thus employed, but this day's sj>ort proved to be 
his last and on the 3oth December he died. 

Rather under six feet in height, Baker was a 
man of tremendous strength and endowed with 
a magnificent constitution. No man of his time 
can have been more powerfully armed for the 
pursuit of dangerous game, and his views on fire- 
arms were in advance of his time. When he first 
went to Ceylon smooth-bores of 12- or i6-gauge 
were commonly used for elephant hunting, but 
his ideas as to suitable weapons were very 
different For his first trip he had built a single- 

* " Sir Semite! Baker A Memoir " : p. 399, 



barrelled rifle weighing 21 Ibs. firing a 3 oz. 
spherical ball or a 402. conical projectile pro- 
pelled by from 12 to 16 drams of powder which 
was regarded as an enormous charge in that 
country. He was convinced of the superiority of 
the riflecl-barrel over the smooth-bore for all 
classes of work, and in the comparative weights 
of propellant and projectile he was aiming at a 
rifle on the lines of the future " Express ". 

For African elephants, Messrs. Holland & 
Holland made for him what are probably the 
most powerful sporting rifles that have ever been 
built. These enormous weapons were single- 
barrelled, weighed 20 Ibs., and tired a half-pound 
explosive shell containing a bursting charge of 
half an ounce propelled by 12 drams of powder. 
Regarding the first of these rifles Baker says: 
" I very seldom fired it, but it is a curious fact 
that I never tired a shot with that rifle without 
bagging; the entire practice, during several years, 
was confined to about 20 shots ". 

Such pieces can hardly be classed as sporting 
weapons, though doubtless for body shots at ele- 
phants they were immensely effective and the 
explosive nature of the projectile would allow for 
a margin of error in aim. On page 200 of 
" Ismailia " Baker describes them as : " the most 
overpowering rifles I ever used. They were 



certain to kill the elephants and to half kill the 
man who fired them with 12 drachms of fine- 
grain powder. I was tolerably strong, therefore 
I was never killed outright; but an Arab hunter 
had his collar-bone smashed by the recoil when 
the rifle was loaded with simple coarse-grain 
powder. If he had used fine-grain, I should 
hardly have insured his life ". 

From Baker's various writings I have carefully 
compiled the following list of weapons that he 
owned and used at one time and another as such 
a battery deserves to be chronicled : 

[Its! of Weapon* folto**] 




g. t 






=2 .* 

3 ^ 
















Ji ^ 






S J E % - g i 




^ Za ~ c ^2 *"* n *" ^ 


^ ^^ C -2 ^ i 5? ^ -^ 


-2 yC 3 

X5 ^ 


c t" 


I T 




8 ^ 




1 2 




-5? 6 

c^, ^ ^^ ^^ ^-^ ^. , ._. 
"S^iD.J* CJC C'^Ccli 


*- 5 


Oi CC 2 3Z >3Z -Si 3 2 2Z 









, jB S22!3^i^ r 

C* p 333Stt* ! 

C Jt Ji?"^^^ ^' 





i o 






TTHE buffaloes of the African continent are 
generally looked upon as being amongst the 
most dangerous animals of the chase. From this 
point of view the Cape buffalo and the bush cow 
of West Africa can be regarded as much the same 
beast. Hunters of wide experience differ in their 
opinions as to the comparative danger attaching 
to the hunting of this and other game, but 
William Finaughty, Sir Frederick Jackson and 
William Judd, have all expressed the opinion 
that it is the most dangerous of all African 
animals. Finaughty has said of the buffalo that 
it is " the fiercest and most cunning animal to be 
found in Africa. A man who is out after buffalo 
must shoot to kill and not to wound, and if he 
fails to bring his quarry down he should on no 
account venture to follow up unless in open 
country ". In considering this opinion it must be 
remembered that Finaughty 's experience was 
gained in the muzzle-loading days, but Sir 
Frederick Jackson and William Judd are both 
hunters of wide experience of a much later date. 


F. C. Selous has said: "as regards viciousness 
I should be inclined to put the buffalo third 
on the list ", and W. D. M. Bell who has shot 
them in East, West and Central Africa has 
described them as " worthy game in thick stuff 
but ludicrously easy things to kill in open 
country ". 

Mr. W. D. M. Bell, whose opinion of the buffalo 
I have already quoted, has probably shot more of 
these animals than any other man. In the course 
of his career as a hunter he has killed between 
600 and 700. 

In connection with the above I will now quote 
from information that Mr. Bell has kindly 
supplied me with: *" In parts they (buffaloes) 
were the regular ration for the camp. I remem- 
ber killing 23 out of 23 with a high velocity .22 
rifle partly to see how effective the tiny 80 grain 
bullet was but chiefly because meat was required. 
I must have killed between six and seven hundred 
of these animals in all. Their hide was a con- 
stant trade article. Cut into sandal and shield 
sizes they never failed to attract an abundant 
supply of flour 1 '. 

Lest the novice or moderate shot should be en- 
couraged by the above statement to attack the 
dangerous game of Africa with a .22 rifle, I feel 

W.D M.B in lf. ajrd March 


it should be stated that Mr. Bell is probably one 
of the most brilliant big-game shots that has ever 
lived. The high velocity .22 rifle in the hands of 
such an expert may well be an adequate weapon, 
but it is usually regarded as in the extreme of 
small bores for use against dangerous game. 

As Mr. Bell was primarily an elephant hunter, 
fuller details of his career are to be found in 
Chapter I, but by way of comment on his bag of 
buffaloes, it can again be said that he spent six- 
teen and a half years on the actual hunting 
grounds, and, as his reputation spread and 
increased among the native tribes, his camp 
following grew in proportion. The bag is cer- 
tainly enormous, but it must be remembered that 

V * 

the hungry mouths often numbered hundreds 
and it was vital to him to obtain and maintain the 
good-will of the natives in the many remote parts 
where he penetrated. 

It is probable that other professional hunters in 
East and Central Africa have made large bags of 
these animals though I think it is unlikely that 
any of them approach Bell's figures. Great 
numbers must also have been shot by " skin- 
hunters " in South Africa before the rinderpest of 
1896-7 practically wiped out the great herds. A 
few years prior to 1893 a Free State Boer named 
Montgomery, who was shooting for hides at the 



Umf uli River in Mashunaland, killed 16 buffaloes 
out of one herd with a 450 Martini-Henry rifle.* 

F. C. Selous shot 175 buffaloes! during his 
many years in South Africa and he subsequently 
shot a couple of fine specimens in East Africa. 
On the 2Oth August, 1879, when shooting for meat 
he killed 6 bulls with ten shots from a single- 
barrelled lo-bore rifle, using spherical bullets and 
six drachms of powder 4 He had several very 
close shaves with these brutes. On one occasion 
in 1879 on the Chobe, he had wounded an old bull 
and was following it up through open bush when 
it charged from its concealed position from a 
distance of not more than ten yards. Firing 
from his hip he immediately sprang to one side 
and this probably saved him, though some part 
of the buffalo struck his thigh with sufficient force 
to throw him down. The beast's hind-leg was 
however broken and Selous was able to despatch 
him with a bullet through the lungs. 

What was probably his most extraordinary 
experience with a buffalo occurred on the Nata 
River in May, 1874. He was pursuing two bulls 
and had twice been offered easy shots, but on 
both occasions his rifle had missed fire. Putting 
a third cap on the rifle and keeping it down with 

F. C. SKtous : 

" Travel and Adventure in South-Bast Africa " : 1893 : p. 430. 
t " African Nature Notes and Reminiscences " : 1908 : p. 138. 
t ibid. p. 143. 


his thumb, he again galloped in pursuit. In a 
couple of minutes he had overtaken one of the 
bulls in a patch of short, thick, mopani bush in 
which the beast halted, wheeled round, and on 
catching sight of the horse immediately made for 
it with nose outstretched and horns laid back. 
Turning his horse broadside on, Selous en- 
deavoured to obtain a shot just between the neck 
and the shoulder which would have either 
knocked the buffalo down or made him swerve, 
but his horse instead of standing commenced to 
walk forward, though taking no apparent notice 
of the buffalo. His own description of what 
followed in the next few seconds is as follows : * 
" in another instant his outstretched nose was 
within six feet of me, so, lowering the gun from 
my shoulder, I pulled it off right in his face, at 
the same time digging the spurs deep into my 
horse's side. But it was too late, for even as he 
sprang forward the old bull caught him full in 
the flank, pitching him, with me on his back, into 
the air like a dog. The recoil of the heavily- 
charged elephant-gun with which I was unluckily 
shooting, twisted it clean out of my hands, so 
that we all, horse, gun, and man, fell in different 
directions .... The buffalo, on tossing the horse, 
had stopped dead, and now stood with his head 
lowered within a few feet of me. I had fallen in 

* "A Hunter's Wanderings." 



a sitting position, and facing my unpleasant 
looking adversary. I could see no wound on him, 
so must have missed, though I can scarcely under- 
stand how, as he was so very close when I fired". 

" However I had not much time for specula- 
tion, for the old brute, after glaring at me a few 
seconds with his sinister-looking bloodshot eyes, 
finally made up his mind and, with a grunt, 
rushed at me. I threw my body out flat along 
the ground to one side, and just avoided the up- 
ward thrust of his horn, receiving, however, a 
severe blow on the left shoulder with the round 
part of it, nearly dislocating my right arm with 
the force with which my elbow was driven against 
the ground, and receiving also a kick on the in- 
step from one of his feet. Luckily for me, he did 
not turn again, as he most certainly would have 
done had he been wounded, but galloped clean 
away ". This was a wonderfully lucky escape 
for Selous, but his horse was so badly injured 
that he was obliged to shoot it 

Count Samuel Teleki shot 79 buffaloes between 
the 24th April, 1887, and 27th May, 1888, on his 
expedition in Eastern Equatorial Africa which 
resulted in the discovery of Lakes Rudolf and 
Stefanie.* Count Teleki had a large caravan to 
feed which necessitated a great deal of shooting. 

* " Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanic " 1894 Vol II : 
Appendix I. 




THE Indian buffalo like the Indian elephant has 
for centuries been domesticated, and except 
for the fact that the tame animals are slightly 
smaller they have remained identical with their 
wild brethren. 

In a wild state they are without doubt 
dangerous animals to pursue. In his book, " The 
Highlands of Central India ", Captain J. Forsyth 
says: " As is the case with most wild beasts, it all 
depends, I believe, on whether you press them 
hard or not .... If followed up on foot, I be- 
lieve the buffalo to be a much more dangerous 
opponent than the bison ". Sir Samuel W. 
Baker, whose experience of them in Ceylon is 
probably unrivalled, says : " There is a degree of 
uncertainty in their character, which much in- 
creases the danger of the pursuit. A buffalo may 
retreat at first sight with every symptom of 
cowardice, and thus induce a too eager pursuit, 
'when he will suddenly become the assailant ". 

The methods of hunting the Asiatic buffalo are 
naturally governed by the nature of the country. 



In India they may be shot from elephants in such 
districts as the high grass jungles of the Terai and 
Assam, whilst in more open country they are 
usually killed by stalking. In the Sunderbuns, 
when the country is flooded, they have on occa- 
sions been shot from boats. They are at ail 
times water loving beasts and in the neighbour- 
hood of the lakes, swamps and extensive plains 
of Ceylon they seem to have formerly existed in 
greater numbers than in any other part. 

It would appear that the record bag of Asiatic 
buffaloes was made in Ceylon by Sir Samuel W. 
Baker, who shot about 200 of these animals during 
the eight years he spent in that country. 

In writing about the life of Sir Samuel Baker 
in Chapter II, I have already pointed out that no 
game diaries of his exist, so that we do not know 
the exact figures of all the game he shot. During 
a part of his residence in Ceylon he did keep 
game books, but the authority for the bag of 
buffaloes quoted occurs on page 61 of his book 
" The Rifle and Hound in Ceylon ". The greater 
part, if not the whole of that book, was written 
while Baker was still in Ceylon, so that it is quite 
probable that he actually shot a good many more 
than 200. 

There seems to be no record of any other man 
devoting himself to buffalo shooting in the way 



that Baker did. The fact that they were to be 
found in their greatest numbers in the hottest and 
usually most unhealthy parts of the country never 
deterred him. On the wide plains, devoid of the 
slightest cover, which stretched for miles along 
the edge of Lake Minneria, he delighted in attack- 
ing the herds or single old bulls on foot, and 
armed usually with two powerful but single- 
barrelled muzzle-loaders. 

One of his earliest experiences with these 
beasts was productive of an incident that must 
surely be unique in the history of big game 
hunting. His own description of that afternoon 
and evening's sport is I think one of the clearest 
and finest descriptions of a sporting incident that 
has ever been written, but it is too long to quote 
in full. 

On this occasion Baker and his brother, armed 
only with a couple of shot guns for which they 
carried a few balls, were tempted to attack a herd 
of buffaloes in the open. Between them they dis- 
abled one bull, and while his brother was dispos- 
ing of this animal Baker gave chase to another. 
At the end of about a mile he brought the animal 
to bay in some shallow water at about fifteen 
paces distance. At this time his knowledge of 
these animals was slight and he says he would 
willingly have betted ten to one on the shot. His 



last two balls were fired however with no further 
effect than to cause the bull to advance a few 
more paces towards him. Facing the beast with 
his empty gun he instinctively felt for his hunting 
knife but realized its uselessness. Not daring to 
move, and keeping his eyes fixed on his antagon- 
ist, he gave a loud whistle as a signal to his 
brother. The next few minutes he describes as 
follows: the buffalo " seemed aware of my help- 
lessness, and he was the picture of rage and fury, 
pawing the water, and stamping violently with 
his fore-feet. 

" This was very pleasant ! I gave myself up for 
lost, but putting as fierce an expression into my 
features as I could possibly assume, I stared 
hopelessly at my maddened antagonist. 

"Suddenly a bright thought flashed through my 
mind. Without taking my eyes off the animal 
before me, I put a double charge of powder down 
the right-hand barrel, and tearing off a piece of 
my shirt, I took all the money from my pouch, 
three shillings in sixpenny pieces, and two anna 
pieces, which I luckily had with me in this small 
coin for paying coolies. Quickly making them 
into a rouleau with the piece of rag, I rammed 
them down the barrel, and they were hardly well 
home before the bull again sprang forward. So 
quick was it that I had no time to replace the 



ramrod, and I threw it into the water, bringing 
my gun on full cock in the same instant. How- 
ever, he again halted, being now within about 
seven paces from me, and we again gazed fixedly 
at each other, but with altered feelings on my 
part. I had faced him hoj>elessly with an empty 
gun for more than a quarter of an hour, which 
seemed like a century. I now had a charge in 
my gun, which I knew if reserved till he was 
within a foot of the muzzle would certainly floor 

him At this moment I heard a splashing 

in the water behind me, accompanied by the hard 
breathing of something evidently distressed. The 
next moment I heard B's. voice. He could 
hardly speak for want of breath, having run the 
whole way to my rescue, but I could understand 
that he had only one barrel loaded and no bullets 
left. I dared not turn my face from the buffalo, 
but I cautioned B. to reserve his fire till the bull 
should be close into me, and then to aim at the 

"The words were hardly uttered, when, with the 
concentrated rage of the last twenty minutes, he 
rushed straight at me. It was the work of an 
instant. B. fired without effect. The horns were 
lowered, their points were on either side of me, 
and the muzzle of the gun barely touched his 
forehead when I pulled the trigger, and three 

shillings 1 worth of small change rattled into his 
hard head. Down he went, and rolled over with 
the suddenly checked momentum of his charge. 
Away went B. and I as fast as our heels could 
carry us, through the water and over the plain, 
knowing that he was not dead but only stunned " 

Baker subsequently had some great days with 
these animals. One day in June, 1847, he killed 
10 buffaloes and finished up the day by shooting 
5 teal and some snipe on his way home.* 

His favourite weapon for this s[X)rt was his 
powerful two-grooved single rifle by Gibbs which 
weighed 21 Ibs. and fired a 3 oz. spherical or 4oz. 
conical bullet propelled by 16 drams of powder. 
He brought off some wonderful shots with this 
rifle. On one occasion he came across two large 
bulls fighting and as the two beasts ranged side 
by side he took a shot at the shoulder of the 
nearest. Both were killed by the one shot, the 
ball lodging in the tough hide of the second 
animal, having passed clean through the bodies 
of both. On another occasion, with a view to 
testing its power and accuracy at long ranges, he 
tried a shot at a buffaJo walking through the 
shallows of Lake Minneria, as the splash of the 
ball in the lake would enable him to see the 
margin of error. The result of this shot he 

'* The Rifle n<i Hound in Ceylon " : 1864 : p, 154. 



describes as follows : " We watched the smooth 
surface of the water as the invisible messenger 
whistled over the lake. Certainly three seconds 
elapsed before we saw the slightest effect. At the 
expiration of that time the buffalo fell suddenly 
in a sitting position, and there he remained fixed; 
many seconds after, a dull sound returned to our 
ears; it was the ' futt ' of the ball, which had 
positively struck him at this immense range. 
What the distance was I cannot say; it may have 
been 600 yards, or 800, or more. It was shallow 
water the whole way; we, therefore, mounted our 
horses and rode up to him. Upon reaching him, 
I gave him a settling ball in the head, and we 
examined him. The heavy ball had passed 
completely through his hips, crushing both joints, 
and, of course, rendering him powerless at once. 

" The shore appeared full half a mile from us 
on our return, and I could hardly credit my own 
eyes, the distance was so immense, and yet the 
ball had passed clean through the animal's body. 

" It was of course a chance shot, and even with 
this acknowledgment, it must appear rather like 
the ' marvellous ' to a stranger; that is my mis- 
fortune, not my fault. I certainly never made 
such a shot before, or since; it was a sheer lucky 
hit, say at 600 yards; and the wonderful power 
of the rifle was thus displayed in the ball per- 



forating the large body of the buffalo at this 
range. This shot was made with a round ball, 
not a cone ". 

I have dealt with Sir Samuel W. Baker's ex- 
periences with the Asiatic buffaloes at some length 
as I can find no record of any other man devoting 
himself to their pursuit as a separate sport in the 
way that he did. 

The largest bag of buffaloes made in a single 
day in India that I can find recorded was made 
one day in April, 1895. by the Maharajah of 
Cooch Behar and his party which consisted of the 
following: Baron Massow, Messrs. Seton-Karr, 
Hawkins, Firman, Lehmann, Apcar, Perree, P. 
Sen, E. Ezra and A. Ezra. Beating with a line 
of elephants and shooting of course from 
howdahs the day's bag amounted to 8 buffaloes 
and i tiger.* 

Another notable day's sport was obtained in 
1899 when 7 buffaloes were accounted for in a 
bag of 15 head of big game. I quote the 
Maharajah of Cooch Behar's own description of 
this great day : t " the 7th March ushered in the 
grandest day's shooting I have ever had. This 
was at Dhowbeel, where, soon after mid-day, we 

The Maharajah of Cooch Behar " Thirty -seven Years ol Big 
Game Shooting in Cooch Behar, The Duara, and Assam " : 1908 : 
P** 154 

t ibid pp aj^r-8 



had thirteen head of big game accounted for, a 
record which I really think has never been 
beaten. Here are the details: one bull bison, 
two bull rhino, and three cows, two bull 
buffalo and five cows. Two Barasingh stag were 
also shot. Excepting the Barasingh, all these 
beasts were turned out of one patch of grass. We 
had great luck in getting the bull bison. He was 
seen by the howdah elephants before we had 
actually caught them up, and he turned out to be 
the same that had bested us some years back. 
He was a rare old bull and stood 18 hands i inch 
at the shoulder". In this year the Maharajah's 
shooting party included: H.R.H. The Count of 
Turin, Prince Teano, Count Carpenetto, Lord 
Lonsdale, Lord Klphinstone, Sir Henry Tich- 
borne, Messrs. Hall Watson, Vandcrbyl, Gurdon, 
Plowden, Prall and Rajey. 

In 1880, in a month's shoot during February 
and March, the bag of bigger game consisted of 
28 buffaloes, 19 rhinos, 9 tigers, 5 bears, and I 
bison,* and between the years 1871 and 1907, 
438 buffaloes were shot on the Maharajah's 

* The Maharajah of Cooch Behar , " Thirty-*cven Year* of Big 
Game Shooting in Cooch ikhar, The Doar, find A***m " : 1906 : 
p 40. 

t ibid, p 44Q. 




fTOR the purposes of this book it is convenient 
to deal with the white or square-mouthed, 
and the black or prehensile-lipped rhinoceroses in 
one chapter, as so many of the early writers on 
African sport refer to these animals without 
particularizing as to the species, and many 
believed that there were two distinct varieties of 
the black rhinoceros. The idea of there being 
two sj>ecies of the latter animal was probably a 
native view; animals in which the posterior horn 
was equal or nearly equal in length to the 
anterior being regarded by them as a separate 

With regard to the question of danger attaching 
to the hunting of these beasts, Mr. F. C. Selous in 
" African Nature Notes and Reminiscences " has 
written as follows : " That a certain proportion 
of the vanished race of South African rhinoceroses 
of the prehensile-lipped species were of a morose 
and savage temper, and therefore dangerous 
animals to encounter, I will not for one moment 



attempt to deny, for there is a great deal of evi- 
dence that this was the case. But what I do 
think is that many writers have taken the 
character of the exceptionally vicious animals 
they met with as typical of that of the whole 
species". Referring to the race throughout the 
whole of its range, he says: " Everywhere it 
seems to have been and to be a stupid, blundering, 
bad-sighted, but keen-scented beast; in the great 
majority of cases doing its best to avoid human 
beings, but always liable to become savage when 
wounded, like elephants, lions, and buffaloes, and 
sometimes being really bad-tempered and savage 
by nature, and ready to charge unprovoked at 
the sight or scent of any one approaching it ". 
Few men can have had a greater experience of 
these animals than A. H. Neumann, and in an 
interesting contribution to the " Great and Small 
Game of Africa " he gives his opinion as follows : 
" As regards the much-disputed question, to what 
degree the rhinoceros is a dangerous beast, the 
result of my experience and observations is very 
decidedly to convince me that, under ordinary 
circumstances and with proper caution, there is 
not much risk in shooting him, and that the 
danger is not to be compared in any way with 
that attending the pursuit of the elephant. At the 
same time, there is always a possibility that one 



may charge, and there is therefore a certain 
amount of excitement in the sport; and instances 
are not rare of men having been badly injured by 
these beasts ". 

With regard to the white rhinoceros, Capt. 
Cornwallis Harris considered the species to be 
nearly as dangerous as the black and he says that 
he found it " subject to the same paroxysms of 
reckless and unprovoked fury " and " often fully 
as troublesome as its sable relative ". The 
majority of observers, however, have regarded it 
as the reverse of vicious, and Mr. W. D. M. Bell 
who found them very plentiful on the west bank 
of the Nile describes them to me as " quite in- 
offensive " and " unlike the pugnacious black ". 

I think it is probable that C. J. Andersson shot 
more rhinoceroses than any other man, though 
just how many he did kill we do not know, and it 
is doubtful if he knew the exact number himself. 
He has stated however that he killed " many 
scores ". His writings show that he shot nearly 
60 of these animals in a few months, and during 
one night at Tunobis in the space of five hours 
he shot 8 (independently of other game),* 


Andersson was a Swede by birth but half 
English by parentage, and in his early days 

" Lake Ngami." 



undertook several hunting expeditions in his 
native land. He went to South Africa in June, 
1850, and the rest of his life was practically 
devoted to hunting and exploration in that 
country, where he eventually died. The books 
he wrote are well known, and in the course of his 
career he must have shot an enormous quantity 
of game. Much of his shooting was done at 
desert fountains and waterholes at night, and it 
it not surprising therefore that he shot large 
numbers of rhinos as these animals are water- 
loving, water-drinking beasts, and in times of 
drought are attracted from large tracts of country 
to such scattered drinking places as there may be. 
There is no doubt that this was a most deadly 
method of shooting in South Africa and Andersson 
practised it extensively. In addition to his huge 
bag of rhinoceroses, mentioned earlier in the 
chapter, he describes one night when he bagged 
no less than 3 hartebeests, 2 pallahs, and 5 zebras 
in the course of a few hours, and he says, that 
had he felt inclined, he could have shot double the 

Andersson regarded the black rhino as a 
decidedly dangerous beast. He describes animals 
of this species as not only of " a very sullen and 
morose disposition " but also " subject to sudden 

" Lake Ngatni " ; p. 237. 



paroxysms of unprovoked fury, rushing and 
charging with inconceivable fierceness, animals, 
stones, bushes in short any object that comes in 
their way". In spite of the great numbers he 
shot, however, he only experienced one serious 
adventure with these animals. On this particular 
occasion he was injured and nearly lost his life 
through too closely approaching and throwing a 
stone at an animal that he had previously 

He shot a fair number of elephants and most 
of his hunting of these animals was done on foot, 
but in this branch of sport I do not think he met 
with anything like the same success as some of his 
contemporaries. Often poorly equipped, he at 
times suffered from intense hardship and priva- 
tion, but he was at all times a careful observer 
and his writings must always be regarded as 
affording a true picture of the South African 
fauna of his time. 


Among the early English hunters in South 
Africa was W. C. Oswell, who on two occasions 
narrowly escaped with his life from encounters 
with rhinoceroses. He was certainly one of the 
most successful hunters of his time and he had a 
very wide experience of both species of rhino. 



In one season he and Major Frank Vardon shot 
89 of these animals.* 

Born in 1818 he entered the service of the East 
India Company in 1837 and whilst in India en- 
joyed such sports as coursing the Indian fox with 
Afghan greyhounds, pig sticking and snipe shoot- 
ing. He also obtained his first experience of big 
game hunting, shooting sambur, axis, bear, etc. 

In 1844, when reduced from 12 st. 2 Ib. to 7 st. 
12 Ib. by many attacks of Indian fever, caught 
during a shooting expedition in the valley of the 
Bhavany River, he was sent to the Cape as a last 
chance by the Madras doctors. The splendid 
climate of South Africa rapidly restored his 
health and the ensuing eight years were the most 
adventurous of his life. With the exception of a 
period in 1847 and 1848 which was spent in India 
and England, he devoted himself to hunting and 
exploring in South Africa. He was the first white 
man to penetrate many portions of the country, 
and in 1849, in company with Livingstone and 
Murray of Lintrose, he crossed the Kalahari and 
discovered Lake Ngami. 

So reticent was Oswell in communicating his 
knowledge and experience to the world, that it 
was only under the pressure of his great friend 
Sir Samuel W. Baker and others that he was 

* H. A. Bryden : " Gun and Camera in Southern Africa " : p. 490, 




eventually persuaded to write his South African 
reminiscences for the Big Game volumes of the 
Badminton Library. He died before the publica- 
tion of this work and Baker wrote a biographical 
sketch from which the following extracts are 
taken : " His character, which combined extreme 
gentleness with utter recklessness of danger in the 
moment of emergency, added to his complete un- 
selfishness, ensured him friends in every society; 
but it attracted the native mind to a degree of 

adoration I have always regarded Oswell 

as the perfection of a Nimrod. Six feet in height, 
sinewy and muscular, but nevertheless light in 
weight, he was not only powerful, but enduring. 
A handsome face, with an eagle glance, but full 
of kindliness and fearlessness, bespoke the natural 
manliness of character which attracted him to the 
wild adventures of his early life. 

" He was a first-rate horseman, and all his 
shooting was from the saddle, or by dismounting 
for the shot after he had run his game to bay ". 

Whilst he was in South Africa, Oswell had some 
hundred and eight horses and the weapon with 
which he did practically the whole of his shoot- 
ing was a muzzle-loading lo-bore by Purdey. 
This gun was double-barrelled, weighed rolbs. 
and burnt five or six drachms of fine powder. 
In after years he lent it to Sir Samuel Baker, who 



described its appearance as follows : " This grand 
old gun exhibited in an unmistakable degree the 
style of hunting which distinguished its deter- 
mined owner. The hard walnut stock was com- 
pletely eaten away for an inch of surface; the 
loss of wood suggested that rats had gnawed it, 
as there were minute traces of apparent teeth. 
This appearance might perhaps have been pio- 
duced by an exceedingly coarse rasp. The fore- 
portions of the stock into which the ram-rod was 
inserted was so completely worn through by the 
same destructive action, that the brass end of the 
rod was exposed to view. The whole of this wear 
and tear was the result of friction with ' wait-a- 
bit' thorns! 

" Oswell invariably carried his gun across the 
pommel of his saddle when following an animal 
at speed. In this manner at a gallop he was 
obliged to face the low scrubby ' wait-a-bits ', 
and dash through these unsparing thorns, regard- 
less of punishment and consequences, if he were 
to keep the game in view, which was absolutely 
essential if the animal were to be ridden down by 
superior pace and endurance. The walnut stock 
thus brought into hasty contact with sharp thorns 
became a gauge, through the continual friction, 
which afforded a most interesting proof of the 
untiring perseverance of the owner, and of the 



immense distances that he must have traversed at 
the highest speed during the five years' unremit- 
ting pursuit of game upon the virgin hunting- 
grounds of Southern Africa ". 

Oswell always strove to obtain the closest 
quarters with all game and to this he owed his 
great success, but in the case of dangerous 
animals the personal risk was greatly increased 
as the margin for escape was very limited. On 
one occasion he had his horse killed under him 
by a buffalo and on another a lioness landed on 
his horse's quarters, but as the horse dashed 
away an overhanging branch swept both Oswell 
and the lioness to the ground. His unusual ex- 
perience with and narrow escape from a white 
rhinoceros he describes thus : " Returning to 
camp one evening with a number of Kafirs, tired 
and hungry after a long day's spooring elephants, 
which we never overtook, I saw a long-horned 
mahoho standing close to the path. The 'length 
of his horn, and the hunger of my men, induced 
me to get off and fire at him. The shot was rather 
too high, and he ran off. I was in the saddle in 
a moment, and, passing the wounded beast, pulled 
up ten yards on one side of the line of his retreat, 
firing the second barrel as he went by from my 
horse, when, instead of continuing his course, he 
stopped short, and, pausing an instant, began to 



walk deliberately towards me. This movement was 
so utterly unlocked for, as the white rhinoceros 
nearly always makes off, that, until he was within 
five yards, I sat quite still, expecting him to fall, 
thinking he was in his ' flurry '. My horse 
seemed as much surprised at the behaviour of the 
old mahoo as I was myself, and did not imme- 
diately answer the rein, and the moment's 
hesitation cost him his life and me the very best 
horse I ever had or knew; for when I got his 
head round, a thick bush was against his chest; 
and before I could free him, the rhinoceros, still 
at the walk, drove his horn in under his flank, 
and fairly threw both him and his rider into the 
air ". Quickly snatching a spare gun from an 
after-rider Oswell finished the rhino, but his horse 
was so badly injured that he had to shoot it He 
himself was but little hurt, but in an adventure 
with a black rhinoceros the consequences were 
more serious. This incident he describes as 
follows : " The rhinoceroses were now within 
twenty yards of me, but head on, and in that 
position they are not to be killed except at very 
close quarters, for the horns completely guard 
the brain, which is small and lies very low in the 

head I had so frequently seen their ugly 

noses, when within eight or ten yards of the gun, 
turn, tempted by a twig or tuft of grass to the 



right or left, and the wished-for broadside thus 
given, that I did not think anything was amiss 
until I saw that if the nearer of those now in front 
of me, an old cow, should forge her own length 
once more ahead, her foot would be on me. She 
was so near that I might possibly have dropped 
her with a ball up the nostril, and, had she been 
alone, I should probably have tried it; but the 
rhinoceros, when he charges, nearly always 
makes straight for the smoke of the gun, even 
though the hunter is concealed, and I knew that 
if No. i fell, No. 2, who was within four or five 
yards of her, would in all probability, be over 
me before the smoke cleared. In the hope that 
my sudden appearance from the ground under 
her feet would startle her and give me a chance 
of escape, I sprang up; the old lady was taken 
aback for a moment and threw up her head with 
a snort. I dashed alongside of her to get in her 
rear; my hand was on her as I passed; but the 
shock to her nerves was not strong enough, for 
before I had made ten yards she was round, and 
in full chase. 

" I should have done better to fire into her as I 
went by, but it had not occured to me, and it was 
now too late; in my anxiety to escape, to put it 
as mildly as may be, I had neglected my best 
chance, and paid the penalty. I was a fast run- 


ner; the ground was in my favour, but in thirty 
yards from the start she was at my heels. A 
quick turn to the left saved me for the moment, 
and, perhaps, by giving my pursuer my flank 
instead of my back, my life too. The race was 
over in the next; as the horned snout came lap- 
ping round my thigh I rested the gun on the long 
head and, still running, fired both barrels; but 
with the smoke I was sailing through the air and 
remember nothing more, for I fell upon my head 
and was stunned ". 

Two gashes, one eight inches long and right 
down to the bone, kept Oswcll to his bed for 
nearly four weeks. 

There is nothing in his own writings or in the 
two volumes of his life written by his eldest son, 
W, Edward Oswell and published in 1900, to 
indicate the full extent of his bag, but it is certain 
that he must have killed a great quantity of game. 
The fact that he and Murray fed six hundred 
starving natives of the Ba-kaa for seven weeks, 
and then sent them back to their kraals with an 
abundant supply for future use, gives some idea 
of what he must have shot. On one of his day's 
hunting for these people he shot 2 elephants, 
i rhinoceros, and jointly with Murray 14 hippo- 
potami, whilst one of his drivers shot a giraffe 
and a quagga. 



Writing of the white rhinoceros, he says: 
" I have seen these long-homed square-nosed 
creatures in herds of six and eight, and when in 
need of a large supply of meat for a tribe, have 
shot six within a quarter of a mile, with single 

It is interesting to note that every head of game 
he killed in Africa, save three elephants, was 
eaten by man. He had some good days with 
elephants and he records shooting 4 bulls in a 
day with at least 500 Ibs. of ivory, and the 
heaviest pair of tusks he got weighed between 230 
and 240 Ibs. the pair. 

The conclusion of his expedition in 1852 was 
the termination of his career as a hunter. In 1860 
he married and thereafter lived a retired life at 
his home at Groombridge where he died in 1893. 

The number of rhinoceroses of both the black 
and the white species that formerly existed in 
South Africa must have been immense. Anderson 
mentions 9 white rhinos having been killed in a 
single day by a European near Walfish Bay, and 
in " The Recollections of William Finaughty " 
there is mention of a day in which Finaughty and 
Gifford, failing early in the day to find fresh ele- 
phant spoor, turned their attention to other game 
and between them made a bag of 13 rhinoceroses, 
i lion, and i lioness. In the north-west of the 


Transvaal white rhinos were very plentiful and 
Capt Cornwallis Harris mentions that on one 
occasion in 1836 when travelling through the 
Magaliesberg district no less than 80 were seen 
during a day's march, while on his way from the 
Limpopo to a hill half a mile distant 22 were 
counted, of which 4 were killed in self-defence. 

The practical extermination of both the black 
and white rhinoceros in all the countries between 
the Limpopo and the Zambesi took place between 
the years 1872 and 1890, owing largely to their 
horns suddenly attaining a considerable com- 
mercial value. About 1880, traders in Matabele- 
land began to employ native hunters to shoot 
them, and as an indication of the extent of this 
trade, F. C. Selous has written as follows : " One 
trader alone told me that he had supplied four 
hundred Matabele hunters with guns and ammu- 
nition and between 1880 and 1884 his large store 
always contained great piles of rhinoceros horns 
of all sorts and sizes, often the spoils of over a 
hundred of these animals at one time, although 
they were constantly being sold to other traders 
and carried south to Kimberley on their way to 
Europe ". 

At the present time the sole survivors of the 
southern white rhinoceros are I believe about 26 
specimens preserved in the Umfolsi Reserve in 



Northern Zululand. Whether this particular 
reserve will continue to be maintained seems 
somewhat doubtful, but is to be hoped that the 
future of these few beasts will in some way be 

Mr. W. D. M. Bell, whose career as an elephant 
hunter I have dealt with in the first chapter, has 
kindly supplied me with the following notes on 
his experiences with rhinoceroses in Equatorial 
Africa: " Regarding my bag of black rhino I 
find that out of a total of 63 killed no less than 
41 were shot when presenting some sort of 
menace to either myself or to a line of porters or 
to an encampment. Of the remainder only three 
were killed for food, thus indicating the richness 
of the other and better meat harvest, while the 
remainder were chiefly killed for making sandals 
or for rewarding natives with shield pieces. In 
my time the horn was not worth taking unless of 
unusual size. 

" During my elephant hunts west of the Nile on 
the banks of that river the white rhino was very 
plentiful. The greatest number I ever saw in one 
day was eleven but I saw some every day. They 
were quite inoffensive, unlike the pugnacious 
black, and hardly ever required shooting. Other 
meat was plentiful and I killed three only ". 

The rhinoceros is not usually regarded as one 



of the great prizes of big game hunting, but 
Major Frank Vardon who accompanied W. C. 
Oswell on some of his travels in South Africa 
seems to have taken the keenest pleasure in their 
pursuit. Oswell says of him : " Vardon was the 
most enthusiastic rhinoceros hunter; he filled his 
wagon with horns as I did mine with ivory; he 
used to shoot four or five every day, and there 
was always a freshness about the sport to him 
which seemed remarkable. He was an all-round 
shot, but best at rhinoceros ". 

Vardon does not appear to have ever written 
about his travels and sport so that little is now 
known concerning him. 

According to Count Samuel Teleki's game book 
he shot 80 rhinoceroses in Eastern Equatorial 
Africa between 24th April, 1887, and 27th May, 

Count Teleki, a nobleman with a large estate in 
Transylvania, was a well-known sportsman and 
in 1887-88 he undertook the important journey of 
exploration which culminated in his discovery of 
the Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie. 

* " Discovery of I^mkcs RndoJf and Stefanie " : 1894 v l 
Appendix I, 



lion is certainly one of the most dangerous 
animals to be found in Africa, and in the 
opinion of F. C. Selous it is the most dangerous 
of all. This great authority considered that 
when once a lion is stopped, it never refuses 
battle, whereas, in his experience, buffaloes and 
elephants try to get away unless very severely 
wounded. Selous' experience of lions was chiefly 
gained in South Africa, but there seems no reason 
to suppose that their character varies to any great 
extent in any part of Africa. He has pointed out 
that though more casualties resulted from hunt- 
ing buffaloes, quite fifty of the latter animals were 
killed in South Africa to every one lion. 

Other hunters of experience have regarded the 
buffalo or the elephant as being more dangerous, 
but the casualties resulting from lion hunting in 
East Africa have certainly been very numerous, 
though doubtless many occurred to men who 
were novices. Mr. W. D. M. Bell states that he 
was told " that in one year out of about forty 
visiting sportsmen who devoted themselves 



seriously to lion hunting, twenty were mauled. 
Of these twenty, more than half were killed or 
died from the effects of wounds ". This great 
hunter goes on to say : " The lions of that period 
were extraordinarily bold and courageous. In 
the early morning on those huge plains I have 
walked steadily towards a troop of lions number- 
ing a score. Just as steadily walked away the 
troop no hurry or fear of man ".* 

Whatever opinions may be held regarding the 
dangers of lion hunting, it is certain that the 
greatest desideratum in their pursuit is the ability 
to shoot both quickly and straight. 

Before giving details of the largest bags of lions 
it is necessary to say something concerning the 
various methods of hunting that have prevailed 
in different parts of the Continent. 

In the early days in South Africa most hunting 
parties were accompanied by a few powerful 
mongrels, and the services of these were generally 
called upon in any attack on lions, the dogs 
assisting in tracking and bringing the animals to 
bay; though few men in that part of the country 
seem to have hunted lions as a separate sport. 
The most successful men of those days were 
mostly shooting for a living, and lions therefore 
were not often shot unless they became a menace 

* " The Wanderings of an Elephant Hunter M : 1923 : p, 176. 



to an encampment or were met with casually. 
It would not appear that they were ever so 
plentiful in South Africa as in East Africa where 
all the largest bags have been made. In such 
strongholds as the vast reed-beds of the Athi in 
the latter country they were at first hunted on 
foot but the difficulties were so great that ponies 
and dogs came to be used. " Riding them " is 
doubtless one of the finest forms of hunting and 
Sir Alfred Pease has said of this sport : " I loved 
galloping and rounding them up for others to kill 
as much as I enjoyed anything in my whole life ". 
Packs of dogs have also been used in East Africa 
in bringing the lions to bay, which greatly reduces 
the danger to the human element. 

In Somaliland they are mostly tracked on foot, 
and in every part of the country they can of 
course be shot at " a kill " from bomas. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, the larg- 
est individual bag of lions made in one day was 
obtained in 1921 by H.H. the Maharajah of Datia, 
in Laikipia. Mr. Jim Fey of Naivasha was the 
hunter employed by the Maharajah, and no less 
than 18 lions were killed by the latter in one night, 
shooting from a boma of thorn over a zebra 
carcass. The total for that night was 34 lions and 
2 leopards, killed by four guns.* 

* Hamilton Snowball in litt. 8th May 1931. 



Another very large bag obtained by similar 
means occurred on the Kinangop above Naivasha 
early in 1922, when a troop of lions killed four 
donkeys belonging to Mr. Jim Fey. With his 
partner he sat up in a boma adjacent to the dead 
donkeys and together they shot 14 lions in an 
hour and a half.* 

An unexpected, though notable, bag was made 
some time prior to 1910 by two young Dutchmen 
who were travelling in a trJk^\^igon^ towards 
Nakuru. They were besieged by a troop of lions 
on the open plain and, without stopping the 
wagon, one brother drove the oxen with a rifle 
by him, whilst the other lay in the tail of the 
wagon and shot 8 lions and 4 lionesses.* 

On Sir Alfred Pease's farm on the Kapiti 
Plains a party once killed 14 lions ill a single day 
(1911-12).! Sir Alfred informed Mr. J. G. Millais 
that he himself had only killed 14 lions and joined 
in ii " partnerships ". Having killed all the 
specimens he wanted he preferred to give his 
friends every opportunity of enjoying good sport. 
Sir Alfred is of course a big game hunter of great 
experience. A first-rate horseman and a first- 
rate shot, he has killed between eighty and a 
hundred varieties of big game. 

i Hamilton Snowball : in Hit 8th May 1931. 

| f J. G Millais : " The Life of F. C Strlons " i 9 i3 p i<)i 



In South Africa the largest bag for a single day 
that I have found recorded was made by that 
famous elephant hunter William Finaughty. On 
the day in question he tracked and shot 7 lions, 
and this feat was performed with a muzzle- 

On the 20th January, 1909, the Danish hunter, 
Karl Larsen, shoJLj lions in the space of two 
minutes in Portuguese South-west Africa. He 
was on the track of a wounded bull elephant in 
the Quillenques district of Benguella when he 
came upon fresh lion spoor and immediately 
afterwards he encountered the animals them- 
selves. Armed with a double-barrelled .600 rifle 
by W. J. Jeffery & Co. he accounted for the 7 
lions with nine cartridges.! 

Who the first man to kill a hundred lions may 
have been I do not know, but Amen-Hotep III 
is said to have killed 102 fierce lions in the first 
ten years of his reign (1400-1390 B.c.)J In con- 
nection with this subject of bags of lions, Mr. 
J. G. Millais obtained much interesting informa- 
tion which he set forth in his book, " The Life of 
F. C. Selous ", and he gave details concerning the 
methods employed by the hunter who has 

" The Recollections of William Finanghty." 
t " O Bengaella " : 6th March 1909. 

* H. S. Gladstone : '* Record Bags and Shooting Records M : 1922 : 
p. 6 (quoted from " Ancient Records of Egypt : The Historical 
Documents " : Vol. II : 1906 : No. 865). 



probably killed a greater number of liotis than 
any other man. I refer to Paul Rainey, who 
claims to have killed over two hundred lions. 
Mr. Millais says : " Paul Rainey 's methods of 
hunting lions with a large pack of hounds can 
hardly come into the true category of lion- 
hunting where risks are taken. The dogs, it is 
true, were often killed or wounded; but as a 
friend who had taken part in these hunts re- 
marked : ' It was just like rat-hunting, and about 
as dangerous '. It is true that one man, George 
Swartz (formerly a German waiter at the Norfolk 
Hotel, Nairobi), was killed in one of these hunts, 
but the accident was singular. Swartz was a very 
bold fellow and moved close in in thick bush 
when the dogs had a lion at bay one day in the 
Kedong in 1912. The lion ' broke bay ', and 
either intentionally charged Swartz or ran over to 
him by chance as he worked the cinema-camera. 
The beast gave the man one bite in the stomach 
and then left him, but the unfortunate fellow died 
shortly afterwards of his wounds ".* 

It is difficult to obtain exact statistics concern- 
ing bags of lions and, indeed, this remark applies 
to all kinds of game. Some men do not keep 
records of their sport, others are reticent in dis- 
cussing what they accomplished, and " partner- 

J. G. Millaia : " The Life of P. C. Seloua M . 1918 : p. 192, 



ships " or animals accounted for by the combined 
efforts of a party all add to the difficulties of 
ascertaining exact figures. It is probable that the 
man who has killed the greatest number of lions 
by ordinary methods of hunting* is Mr. Clifford 
Hill, a resident farmer in East Africa, who also 
acted as professional hunter to many "safaris". 
His brother, Harold D. Hill, informed Mr. Millais 
in March, iqi8, that Clifford Hill had been in at 
the death of 160 lions though he constantly 
allowed some friend to have first shot, Harold 
D. Hill, who for several years managed Sir 
Alfred Pease's farm in East Africa in addition to 
his own, stated that he himself had been in at the 
death of 135 lions, but as in the case of his 
brother's total this does not represent the number 
of animals on which he had drawn first blood, f 
Doubtless both brothers could have increased 
their personal totals had they been so minded. 

According to F. C. Selous, that famous Boer 
hunter Petms Jacobs killed well over one 
hundred lions during the course of his life in 
South Africa. Unlike many of the Boer hunters, 
Jacobs was always ready to attack lions and 
when over seventy-three years of age he was 
badly mauled by one. This animal seized him 
by the thigh and threw him to the ground biting 

* See- I!M> p n*\ 

f J G, MtUrtH " The Life of I* Selous " tyiS p IQI 



him fearfully. He was also bitten in the left arm 
and hand but ail the time his three powerful dogs 
"were worrying the lion's hind-quarters, and soon 
made it so rough for him that he left his human 
foe to attack them ". Within two months of this 
incident " the sturdy old fellow was again able 
to ride on horseback ".* Petrus Jacobs was one 
of the most experienced elephant hunters in South 
Africa and some further notes concerning him 
will accordingly be found in the first chapter. 

Mr. W. D. M. Bell has recorded the doings of 
an old Sikh ex-soldier and his son at the time the 
Uganda Railway was being constructed. t " It 
was when the Government had offered a large 
reward for every lion killed within a mile on 
either side of the railway. Fired with the pros- 
pect of immediate wealth, this old man obtained 
a Rigby-Mauscr .275, and he and his son took to 
hunting lions. There were then in East Africa 
troops of lions sometimes over twenty strong. 
Knowing from the permanent-way gangs of 
coolies the likeliest spots, the hunters began their 
operations. These consisted of building shelters 
from which to fire by night, and they were 
generally situated close to reed beds known to be 
used by lions. At first the shelters were quite 

P. C 8rl<H " A Hunter'* Wamlrrmj?* in Africa " 

t M The Wanderings cf an FUrphftnt Hunter " Jf>at ' pp 175 /^ 



elaborate affairs affording considerable protec- 
tion. Familiarity taught them that no protection 
was necessary, and latterly the cache was merely 
a ring of boulders over which one could fire from 
the prone position. The old man could imitate 
a goat or a cow to perfection, but whether it was 
desire on the part of the lions to eat goat or cow, 
or merely curiosity to find out what the strange 
noise was, must remain a mystery. Certain it is, 
though, that the Sikhs' cache was a sure draw. 
The young fellow shot straight and true, and lion 
after lion succumbed. In nine months these two 
men claimed the reward on some ninety skins. 
On about forty-five the reward was actually paid, 
there being some doubt as to whether the 
remainder were killed within the mile limit ".* 

Hunting in Somaliland and British East Africa, 
Lord Delamere is believed to have killed between 
fifty and sixty lions. | Towards the close of last 
century this fearless and skilful hunter made his 
historical journey across Somaliland and into 
British East Africa, where he became one of the 
pioneer settlers and founders of Kenya Colony. 

Mr. William Judd, one of the greatest pro- 
fessional hunters of East Africa, is said to have 
killed 48 lions in South and East Africa}: and to 

According to the brochure published by Messrs. Chas. A. Heyer 
& Co. of Nairobi, Mr. J. A. Hunter has shot 84 lions. 

f I. G. Millai* : " The Life of F. C. Selous " : 1918 : p. 192 (quoted 
from a letter from Sir Alfred Pease). 

t ihtd. p. 190. 



have been in at the death of 43 others. A 
magnificent shot, Judd only experienced one 
narrow shave in the making of this bag. This 
incident occurred in the Gwas N'yiro bush when 
he was hunting with F. C. Selous in 1909. The 
history of this encounter was subsequently given 
by Judd to J. G. Millais, who has described it as 
follows : " It appears that Scions and Judd were 
out together one day and disturbed two lionesses, 
which disappeared in thick forest. Selous at once 
galloped after them and outdistanced Judd, who 
came somewhat slowly cantering behind, as he 
did not wish to interfere with Selous. All at 
once, from the side of the path, Jucld saw a great 
yellow body come high in the air from the side of 
the game-trail. He had no time even to raise his 
rifle from the position across the saddle-pommel, 
but just cocked it up across and pulled the trigger. 
One of the lionesses, for such it was, had 
apparently crouched and allowed Selous to pass, 
and had then hurled herself upon the second 
hunter. By a fine piece of judgment, or a happy 
fluke, Judd's bullet went through the lioness's 
eye and landed her dead at his feet. His horse 
swerved. He fell off, and found himself standing 
beside the dead body of his adversary ". 

A. B. Percival, the well-known game warden, 
and author of two excellent books on big game, 



is said to have shot 50 lions during his residence 
in East Africa, and in one season in Somaliland, 
Colonel Curtis killed 27.* 

In 1892-3 Colonel Arthur Paget and Lord 
Wolverton made a trip in Somaliland of five 
months' duration. Subsequently, Lord Wolver- 
ton wrote an account of this expedition which 
was published in 1894 under the title of " Five 
Months' Sport in Somaliland ". A careful perusal 
of this work shows that these two sportsmen 
accounted for 32 lions during this period. 

Major J. Stevenson Hamilton killed by himself 
between 50 and 60 lions, 47 of which he walked 
up alone on foot in South Africa. " In the three 
months of August, September and October, 1920, 
he walked up and shot 16 lions in the Trans- 
vaal ".f Concerning Major Hamilton, Sir Alfred 
Pease has written as follows : " Major Hamilton 
has had many experiences in the Sudan and else- 
where, and there are few better authorities on 
African zoology". Sir Alfred then says: "Yet 
Hamilton would say that there is another man 
living named Fraser, whom I knew in my 
Transvaal days, whose knowledge is probably 
superior to that of any man past or present. 
Fraser is now growing old, but is a man of 

J. G. Millaia : " The Life of P. C. Setous " : 1918 : p. 190. 
f Sir Alfred R. Pease : " Kdmund Loder A Memoir " : 1033 : 
p. *8. 



remarkable physique and with abnormal powers 
of observation; he has spent twenty years in 
South Africa and twenty-five previously in India; 
he can write excellent descriptive letters, sketches 
and paints beautifully, and has a most intimate 
acquaintance with the life histories and habits of 
South African fauna, yet he never has and never 
will make use of his knowledge and talents for 
the benefit of the outside world. The secrets he 
has discovered and the knowledge acquired in his 
long life of diligent and intelligent observation in 
the wilds will die with him ". I have quoted the 
foregoing at some length as it goes to show how 
some men of vast experience leave little or no 
record of their achievements behind them, and 
one can never be absolutely certain that statistics 
which appear to constitute a record have not at 
some time been exceeded. 

As this book was on the point of going to press 
I received a letter dated 17.12.31 from Col. 
Stevenson-Hamilton, who states that though he 
does not know the exact number of lions that he 
has killed during the thirty years he has now 
spent in Africa, he believes it to be about 200. 
Owing to pressure of space I am unable to quote 
his letter in full, but the following extracts are of 
particular interest. All these lions were killed 
hunting alone and on foot, that is accompanied 


by never more than two trackers. Of these, per- 
haps twenty have been shot at night by sitting 
up over their own kills or at water holes. For 
the last twenty years he has used an ordinary 
long barrelled .303 service rifle and with this he 
has killed about 130 lions. His largest bag at 
one go was five, and his best, four black-maned 

That great African hunter, Mr. W. D. ML Bell, 
was mainly concerned with elephants, but in 
some interesting notes that he has kindly 
furnished me with, he says: "With regard to 
lions I merely killed any that caused annoyance, 
such as roaring round camp, stampeding porters, 
and so forth. The total so killed is 25".* 
Leopards he shot, when he came across them, 
provided he was not close to elephants at the 
time, or by waiting for them at water-holes, etc. 
Mr. Bell shot 16 leopards during the course of his 
hunting career. I have already indicated in the 
chapters devoted to African elephants and 
African buffaloes that Mr. Bell is a rifle shot of 
outstanding ability, it is therefore particularly 
interesting to know his views on lion hunting, 
I quote the following from his most excellent 
book, 'The Wanderings of an Elephant Hunter" , 
in which he says : " The reason of the high 

W D. M Bell : In Hit 2 ud March 1931. 


mortality among those who hunt lions casually is, 
I think, the simple one of not holding straight 
enough. Buck -fever or excitement, coupled with 
anxiety lest the animal should slip away, is 
probably the cause of much of the erratic shoot- 
ing done at lions. This frequently results in flesh 
wounds or stomach wounds, which very often 
cause the lion to make a determined charge; and 
there are a great many things easier to hit than 
a charging lion. Great care should be taken to 
plant the bullet right. The calibre does not 
matter, I am convinced, provided the bullet is in 
the right place. Speaking personally, I have 
killed sixteen lions with .256 and .275 solid bullets, 
and, as far as I can recollect, none of them 
required a second shot ". 

F. C. Selous shot 31 lions himself* and joined 
in the killing of n others, but though his bag of 
these animals is of no very great magnitude he 
made a close study of their natural history, and 
his writings on the subject remain unchallenged 
as the most detailed and authoritative works that 
we have. 

* Sec ftlao Chapter VIII. 




is a romance and a devilishness about 
a tiger possessed by no other Indian 
animal/' so says Major-General A. E. Wardrop, 
and doubtless ninety-nine men out of every 
hundred, who have shot big game in India, will 
agree with him. 

Tigers, according to their different habits, may 
be divided into three classes : those which habitu- 
ally live on game alone; those which prey upon 
cattle; and the considerably smaller proportion 
that kill and devour human beings. The last- 
named are usually old animals of either sex which 
have difficulty in procuring their normal food 
owing to some 'disability, and there is no reason 
to suppose that they prefer human flesh. 

Tigers may be hunted with a line of elephants, 
the rifles either shooting from howdahs or from 
positions towards which the animals are driven, 
or they may be driven by beaters on foot, though 
the latter proceeding is only possible where the 
jungle will admit of the men Maintaining line. 



They are also shot by sitting up over a " kill " 
or " bait " or by watching for their arrival at 
pools where they are known to drink. In some 
parts where the cover is so continuous as to make 
driving impracticable, tigers are surrounded with 
nets and shot from outside or inside. Tiger 
shooting on foot is a most dangerous form of sport 
and though not usually systematically followed, 
it is sometimes resorted to. 

Though the range of the tiger includes the 
Caucasus, Northern Persia, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, Manchuria, Korea, etc., they are 
by no means plentiful in most of these countries 
and all the largest bags have been made within 
the Indian Empire. 

The most productive tiger shoot appears to 
have occurred on the occasion of His Majesty 
the King's visit to Nepal in IQII. I take the 
following details of the wonderful sport enjoyed 
from Major-General Nigel Woodyatt's delightful 
book, " My Sporting Memories " : " King George 
arrived in the Nepalese Tarai on the i8th Decem- 
ber, and killed two tigers on that date. With the 
exception of Sunday the 24th, His Majesty shot 
every day, leaving for Calcutta on the evening of 
the a8th December. The total bag of King 
George and his suite was, tiger, 39; rhino, 18; 
bear, 4; barking deer, i ". On 2Oth December, 



in the Chitawan Valley, the day's bag amounted 
to, tiger, 7; bear, 2; rhinoceros, 2. " Of the tiger, 
King George got five, and Sir Colin Keppel 
and Captain Godfrey Faussett one each. The 
two rhino were killed by the King and the 
Duke of Teck, The couple of bear by Sir 
Horace Smith-Dorrien and Captain Godfrey 
Faussett ". 

So far as I know, this clay's bag of 7 tigers has 
only once been exceeded and that was in 1897 in 
the same country. I quote "The Field' 1 of the 5th 
June, 1897, for the details of the shoot in ques- 
tion : " The shoot organised for Sir Baker Russell 
in Nepal during the last week of April by the kind 
permission of Sir Bir Sham Sher, Prime Minister 
of Nepal, appears to have been quite a 
phenomenal one in those parts. Unfortunately 
Sir Baker was himself unavoidably prevented 
from attending it, but the remainder of his party, 
which consisted of Colonel Garbott, C.O. of the 
2nd Bengal Lancers; Major Ellis, R.E.; Major 
Bewicke-Copley (Sir Baker's military secretary); 
Major Smith-Dorrien, Derbyshire Regiment; and 
Capt Browne Clayton, 5th Lancers, were lucky 
enough to secure twenty-three tigers, four cubs, 
and four leopards in fourteen days, besides a 
large quantity of various kinds of deer and 
birds ". Referring to this same fortnight's sport 

1 08 


General Woodyatt says : * " It was in this shoot 
that the guns in the beat arrived at the * stops ' 
with eight full grown tiger killed ". 

Another bag of 7 tigers as the result of a single 
day's shooting was made by the Maharajah of 
Cooch Behar's party in February, 1907. The 
following is the Maharajah's own description of 
the day's sport: t " The big shoot commenced on 
the i8th at Saralbhanga River. Our party con- 
sisted of Their Excellencies the Karl and Countess 
of Minto, Lady Eileen Elliot, Adam, Dunlop 
Smith, Crooke-Lawlcss, Bulkeley, Mackenzie, 
Graham, Rajey, Hammond, Lyall, Perrie, Sujey 
and myself ". 

11 The first day was a glorious one. Before 
lunch we had three tigers padded and bagged 
another four in the afternoon, making in all seven 

On the i6th March, 1903, the Maharajah and 
his party, which at that time included Lord and 
Lady Lonsdale, had another great day. Shoot- 
ing the Reserves on the Jorai nullah, 5 tigers 
were bagged within twelve minutes, { and on two 
separate occasions in 1902 the day's bag included 
4 tigers. 

* ** My Sporting Memorie* " . 1923 : p, an 

t " Thirty-*Ten Yean of Bi Gam* Shooting tn Cooch Bchar, 

The Daaro, and Asiata " : i<?A : pp. 411*414. 
; ibid p ^4 



Between 1871 and 1907, 365 tigers were killed 
on the domains of the Maharajah of Cooch Behar, 
and it is interesting to note that during the same 
period the total number of leopards killed 
amounted to 31 1.* 

A notable bag to one rifle was made by Mr. 
R. P. Cobbolcl in the Central Provinces in 1897. 
Between March ist and June ist, Mr. Cobbold 
shot ii timers, 3 panthers, 4 buffaloes, 2 bison, 
4 bears, 2 sambhur and cheetah, making a total of 
26 head of big game. The tigers were all obtained 
by driving and it is noteworthy that no animal 
wounded escaped. Mr. Cobbold was shooting 
with a .577 by Holland and Holland. t 

It is impossible to say definitely who has killed 
the greatest number of tigers. Of that great 
hunter, Sir Henry Ramsay, General Woodyatt 
says: " I do not think he knew how many tiger 
he had shot. Probably several hundreds and he 
never sat up for a tiger, if he could help it "4 
Mangal Khan, aji Indian gentleman in the United 
Provinces, informed Sir John Hewett in 1921 or 
1922 that he had seen over 900 tigers killed. 
Concerning Mangal Khan, General Woodyatt 
writes : " His ancestral home (he is a big land- 

* " Thirtv-%cvrn Yrars ol Bttf Game Sh<x>ttng in Cooch Behar, 

Tl>c Dttnrv and Assam " i<>>8 j> 44^ 
f '* The I'VM " U*t Jttlv rSgr 
t *' Mv Spotting Menu nr* " i ( >:t p 16 
i^iJ pp ; u v 14 



holder) is in Pilibhit in the U.P. and the name 
he gave it is Sherpur (tiger town). A grand 
sportsman he is too. He has been known to dap 
his hands in order to turn a tiger to some other 
stop ". 

Lieut-Colonel A. E. Ward, a mighty hunter 
with a vast knowledge of Indian game, and 
several of the Indian Princes must also have shot 
enormous numbers of tigers, but certainly one of 
the most noted tiger-hunters of modern times was 
Colonel Faunthorpe. Exactly how many tigers 
he killed does not appear to be known, but it is 
believed to be over 300. 


Col. Faunthorpe will always be remembered 
as one of the greatest figures in the annals of 
Indian sport. He excelled as a hog-hunter and 
as an all-round horseman and judge* of horse- 
flesh, whilst as a big game hunter and rifle shot, 
and particularly as a howdah shot, it is doubtful 
if he ever had a superior in India. 

Educated at Rossall he gained a reputation as 
a marksman before leaving school and later he 
shot for Oxford. Subsequently he joined the 
Indian Civil Service and arrived in India in 1892. 
In 1894 he was posted to Banda where he had 



his first experience of big game hunting. In 1896 
he was in Cawnpore and here he was introduced 
to pig-sticking, which sport he pursued with zest, 
whenever opportunity offered, until the outbreak 
of the " Great War ". He was in the final of the 
Kadir Cup in 1899 and during the course of his 
career he also speared leopards, swamp deer, 
cheetah, hog deer, etc. 

Faunthorpe was a successful exhibitor at the 
horse shows in Upper India and he was also a 
Steward of the Lucknow Race Course. In 1912 he 
won the Civil Service Cup with his pony "Devon" 
which he had imported from Australia on his own 

In 1901 he was given charge of the district of 
Bahraich in Oudh -vhere he enjoyed excellent 
shooting in the vast forests bordering on Nepal, 
and later he was posted to the Naini Tal district, 
which area included some of the finest tiger 
country in Northern India, and whilst there he 
organized many big shoots for distinguished 

Ort being transferred to Muzaffamagar in 
1905, Faunthorpe found himself in a district the 
ravines of which harboured a great number of 
panthers. With the assistance of the local 
Banjaras, who were first-rate men at tracking the 
panthers, he was most successful with these 



animals. Whenever a panther had been located 
word was sent to Faunthorpe, who immediately 
galloped to the spot; the Banjaras's dogs were 
then put into the panther's lair with a view to 
making it bolt, thus giving Faunthorpe the chance 
of a shot. This was carried out with such success 
that in a little over a year he is believed to have 
shot nearly a hundred panthers.* 

In 1907 he was appointed to Kheri and he 
subsequently enjoyed such big game shooting as 
falls to the lot of very few men in India. The 
exact number of tigers that Faunthorpe killed 
does not appear to be definitely known, but it is 
stated in that excellent biographical sketch which 
appeared in " The Hoghunter's Annual " that 
" the number that he shot must be over three 
hundred ".f 

Faunthorpe's skill with the rifle was of a quite 
exceptional order. To be able to stand on the 
seat of a howdah and wait for the rush of a stag 
through a thinner patch of jungle, where a fleet- 
ing glance of its head might be obtained, and 
then to kill it with a shot through the neck at 
some 200 yds., is an accomplishment that few 
men would attempt with the slightest hope of 
success, but Faunthorpe has been known to do it 

* " The Hoghantcrs' Annual " : Vol. IV : 1931 : p. 50. 
t ibid. Vol. IV : 1931 : p. 30. 



Not only was he brilliant as a lightning-shot at 
moving targets, but, if circumstances demanded, 
he was equally capable of infinite patience in 
firing, even with his game in full view. The 
following instance quoted from General Ward- 
rop's classic " Modern Pigsticking " well illus- 
trates his capacity in this res[>ert Faunthorpe 
was beating for a well-known tigress whose mate 
had t>een killed by General Wardrop and a 
brother ofhcer some years before "She dodged 
the line for hours, but, getting bored, climbed 
on to a stack of grass bundles to see how the hunt 
went. Faunthorpe aimed at her for about two 
minutes while his elephant swayed; at last he got 
a bead he was satisfied with, and knocked her 
over, stone dead, at a distance of over 200 yards". 

At Bisley in i<)2t) he shot for the Indian Eight 
in the Knlhapon* Cup and he won the Running 
Deer competition against all comers. 

Before the War, Faunthorpe commanded the 
United Provinces Horse and at the outbreak of 
hostilities in 1914 he was on leave in England 
Of his various services in connection with the War 
it is unnecessary to sfx\ik, but he was awarded 
the C.B.K, and the Military Cross, and in IQ22 
he received the exceptional distinction and 
honour of being appointed A.D.C. to H.ML the 



On his return to India he became Commissioner 
at Lucknow and much of his spare time was then 
spent in conjunction with Arthur S. Vcrnay 
collecting specimens for the Natural History 
Museums of Chicago and New York. For the 
furtherance of this object he was placed on 
special duty, and in iq^-jj the Vernay-Faun- 
thorpe Expedition was carried out. With the 
assistance of the Government of India, the Killing 
Princes, and Local Governments, this expedition 
was a great success and a representative* collec- 
tion of the big game animals of India, Burma 
and Nepal was obtained. 

In connection with this work Col. Faunthorpe 
shot some lions in the Gir country in Kathiawar 
and he is one of the very few men who have ever 
done so, Mr G M. Dyott, F K G 8 , who accom- 
panied the expedition as photographer, obtained 
some excellent cinematograph pictures for use in 
the Museum Lecture Hall, These pictures were 
exhibited to the public for a short jx*riod and 
Mr. Dyott spoke concurrently with the presenta- 
tion of the film. Colonel Faunthorpe retired 
from the service in 1925, but in connection with 
the work of collecting specimens he returned to 
India in 1929 when he contracted pneumonia and 
died on the ist December of that year. 

In 1930, Mr Vernay generously gave the 



National Rifle Association sufficient capital to 
provide a Colonel Faunthorpe Memorial Cup, 
and it would be difficult to conceive a more fitting 
memorial to this remarkable man. 

Sir Edmund Loder, in the course of a letter 
written in 1875, refers to Colonel Baigrfc, who, he 
says, has killed 195 tigers;* but I can find no 
other references to this individual. 

H.H. the Maharajah of Bikaner is said to have 
shot 143 tigers up to the year 1930,! and other 
men, though probably not very many, have killed 
over a hundred. 

Many capable and experienced sportsmen have 
assisted in the killing of great numbers of tigers, 
though they may have accounted for no very 
great number themselves. Thus, Major-General 
Woodyatt writes : J " Few men now living have 
seen as many tiger shot as Sir John Hewett .... 
the number is very close on to two hundred and 
fifty, and in localities so wide apart as Assam, 
Central Provinces, Nepal and the United 
Provinces", but being a most unselfish sports- 
man, he himself had only killed about forty, 
Of Sir John Campbell, who has seen nearly 200 
tigers killed, of which he has shot at least 60, he 

* Sir Alfred B PtftM " Edmund Unier-A Memoir 

p. 176. 

f l * Sunday Hxprc** " : jth October 
! " My Sporting Memories " 



goes on to say : " He once t got three tigers in thr^ 
shots in rather over three minutes. Two were 
shot in the neck and one in the forehead, and none 
of the three required a second shot ". 

Sir Bindon Blood is said to have been at the 
death of over 150 tigers, of which 52 have fallen 
to his own rifle.* 

Tigers are so rarely met with by chance and 
shot when after other game that I am tempted to 
recall an experience that befell that well-known 
surveyor and explorer of unknown country, 
Colonel H. G. C Swayne, then a young lieutenant, 
in the jungles of West Mysore in 1889. I do not 
put it forward as a record, though it is particularly 
interesting as it relates to the first tigers that he 

On the day in question he was after sambar 
stag jn high tree jungle with bushy undergrowth, 
when he suddenly smelt something dead, and 
thinking it might be a kill of some sort he 
decided to investigate it. Almost immediately a 
tigress passed him diagonally from his right, 
obviously going towards the " kill ", or whatever 
it was. When the beast was about sixty yards to 
his right front he fired, hitting her through the 
ribs. She was down wind, and never saw him. 

Major-General Ksgtl Woodyatt : " My Sporting Memorie* " : 
1993: p. 19. 



but on being hit, she raced away for sixty yards 
across his front, and then all was silence. He 
then sent his shikari up a tree to get a view, while 
he remained below with rifle ready, but the native 
saw the tigress lying dead. 

They then proceeded to skin the animal to- 
gether, but suddenly the shikari stole quietly 
away, his idea being to go and investigate the 
cause of the smell. 

Swayne went on with the job of skinning till 
at length the native returned, excitedly pointing. 
He had discovered a dead sambar, and a male 
tiger was moving about near the meat. 

Quickly circling down wind to a tree, from 
behind which the native had spied the tiger, 
Swayne steadied his rifle against the upright 
trunk and waited. Thirty yards away the tiger 
rolled about playfully by the kill, but no more 
than fleeting glances of the tail, or a leg, were 
obtainable, so the Indian picked up a small stone 
and threw it, but without result. The beast must 
have been heavily gorged not to have heeded the 
shot at the tigress, or else it must have come 
quickly from a distance while they were quietly 
skinning the tigress, 

As the small stone thrown by the native had 
produced no result, Swayne picked up a piece of 
rock weighing about six pounds and heaved it at 



the tiger, striking the animal on the ribs. The 
tiger roared and stood looking to Swayne's left. 
At that moment he fired, hitting him in the ribs, 
at which the beast raised himself to his full height, 
gnawing his own shoulder; then he galloped 
away through the grass straight down wind, 
springing high, like a dog does, to look about him 
over the grass. 

Again the shikari ascended a tree, when he 
quickly spotted the tiger lying dead. 

The tiger, the tigress, and the tree from which 
Swayne had fired formed an equilateral triangle 
the sides of which measured no more than about 
30 yards. 

In furnishing me with the details of this inci- 
dent, that officer has been good enough to give 
me some other particulars. I quote his notes in 
full as they are not only of great interest, but his 
remarks concerning the statistics of big game 
shooting in general coincide so closely with the 
views which prompted the writing of this book, 
and which I have endeavoured to express in the 
introductory chapter. Under date of 26th July, 
1931, he says : " So far as my records go, they 
cover 44 years in two phases; from 1884 to 1897, 
years of exploration surveys in Africa for the 
Government when there were often thirty 01 
forty men to provide with meat for a year or more 



at a time; from 1898 to 1927 about 40 smaller 
private trips in Asia and Africa in order to com- 
plete collections, see new countries, and meet new 
tribes. Beginning with the subject of the big 
predatory cats tigers, lions, and leopards one 
met them by chance when on foot and alone or 
when accompanied by two or three natives, who 
did the main part of the tracking. Camp 
arrangements were inexpensive, consisting of a 
low explorer's tent without furniture, or 
bivouacking on the grouncj in the open. The 
occasions of meeting the great cats are rare; and 
the modest number of seventeen was accounted 
for in over forty years, though one saw many 
more than one got. Time and finances were 
limited, and although one saw a great deal of the 
effects of their depredations on natives, and was 
constantly coming on their spoor, one sometimes 
refrained from attacking them when a head 
scarcely showing in the grass made shooting too 
difficult On one of the rare occasions when I 
happened to have another white man with me, 
I was knocked over and mauled by a lioness and 
saved very gallantly by my brother. Our two 
surveying parties had met, and we had heard of 
lions at a tribal meeting and gone out together. 
" In Somaliland I had conclusive though 
melancholy proof of what a pair of lions can do 



when really after human beings, as in one month 
a pair killed eight people : the first a young bride 
clawed out of a hut at night; and the last my 
head camelman torn from a mule when galloping 
in broad daylight alone through the glades of the 
Ogaden bush. Both of these I helped to bury, 
and tribal evidence disclosed six other human 
beings having been killed in the interval between 
these two cases. In that Ogaden journey of 
many hundred miles one seemed to be always 
having to treat wounds inflicted on the inhabi- 
tants by lions. 

" I never joined big shoots or drives, for 
reasons of economy, and only once shot a tiger 
from a tree, at night, in Rajpipla, through the 
kind help of the Assistant Resident at Baroda. 

" It is not uncommon for District Officials in 
India, as a public duty in the course of their 
career, to kill a hundred or more tigers by 
organized drives, young buffaloes being tied up at 
likely spots for bait; on the principle of sacrificing 
one for all; and tigers so localized are driven out 
by a line of elephants and shot from the howdah; 
it is very exciting sport, but beyond the means of 
most soldiers. 

" Personally, I should be content to see all the 
predatory cats poisoned, for the sake of the 
natives and stock* 



" Going on to discuss game, not naturally pre- 
datory, but occasionally destructive to human 
life or property, which includes elephant 
rhinoceros, and various sorts of bears, some two 
dozen of this class were accounted for; and as 
for other animals, when looking for a special 
trophy, as most men hailing from India do, one 
has on some trips travelled thousands of miles 
by land or sea, coming back with but a single 
trophy worthy of the name." 

Colonel Swayne then goes on to say : " Your 
investigation into the statistics of sport is 
especially interesting just now, when ' big game 
shooting ', on the strict principles prevailing in 
the past, is already a dying pursuit; the reasons 
being easy access, by air or road, to game haunts 
by undesirable people; the broadcasting of fire- 
arms among natives who shoot everything they 
see; and settlers on the land destroying game 
which is inimical to crops, on economic grounds. 
Another reason is that there is a growing objec- 
tion to all cruel sports; and travel films have 
made wild animals of distant countries no longer 
a novelty. 

"That the extermination of game cannot be 
laid at the door of genuine ' big game hunters ' 
can be proved by a simple calculation A man 
who in a lifetime bags a score of the big cats and 



say about 200 of other game is really not reducing 
the game; for a tiger, lion, or leopard will average 
four kills a month at least; he lives say four years 
at his prime; so that twenty big cats would have 
lulled 3,840 head of game or cattle and the ' big 
game hunter ' comes out of it with a credit balance 
of some 3,640 saved, if not created by himself, 
let alone their posterity. 

" The best chance of really seeing these wild 
animals in future will be in Government 
sanctuaries in selected climates of the world, 
where, with the improved travel facilities, people 
will in the future be able to visit them without 
being shocked by the sight of tropical animals 
lame with rheumatism, or arctic animals shut up 
in stuffy dens in summer/' 

I think these notes by Colonel Swayne make 
an interesting supplement to his own excellent 
books, " Seventeen Trips through Somaliland and 
a visit to Abyssinia " and " Through the High- 
lands of Siberia ", and to his other writings. He 
can look back a long way. He carried out the 
first explorations of what afterwards became 
British Somaliland as long ago as 1884-87, and 
later was a member of the inaugural expedition 
of the Imperial Chartered Company which took 
over Mombasa and Lamu villages from the 
Arabs in 1888, at the time when Stanley and 


Emin Pasha reached the East Coast from 
Wadelai; and 1915-17 found him re-employed on 
active service in France and Flanders with an 
RJE. Labour Battalion, when he was mentioned 
in despatches and awarded a C.M.G. I do not 
know when he first began exploring with 
theodolite and rifle, but as recently as 1927 he 
and Mr. Louis Dairies, who is well known in 
South Africa, unexpectedly encountered ele- 
phants after dark when returning to a ranch from 
shooting and narrowly escaped being trampled 
on. I think his career stands for all that is best 
in big game hunting and is in accordance with 
the highest traditions of that army of fine soldier- 
sportsmen whose education in the arts of the 
chase commenced with service in India. 




DROBABLY the greatest slaughter of game ever 
accomplished in any part of the world, as the 
result of a single hunt, took place in South Africa 
on the plains of the Orange Free State. I quote 
Mr. H. A. Bryden for a brief description of the 
event:* " In 1860 when the Duke of Edinburgh 
(then Prince Alfred) was taken to the eastern part 
of the Orange Free State, a great hunt was got 
up in his honour. One thousand of Moroka's 
Barolong, then dwelling at Thaba Unchu, drove 
in the game from a large tract of country. It 
was computed that at least 25,000 head of game 
were in sight of the sportsmen; black and blue 
wildebeest, Burchell's zebras, quaggas, ostriches, 
blesboks, hartebeests and springboks were to be 
seen all charging hither and thither in affrighted 
squadrons, and raising clouds of dust. The 
number of game slain that day ran into thousands 
6,000 some people say; several natives were 
trampled or crushed to death by a charging herd 

" Goo and Crnmcrm in Southern Africa " 



of zebras; while others sustained broken limbs ". 
This great drive must certainly have afforded a 
wonderful though barbaric spectacle, but with 
this one allusion to native hunts we can pass on 
to what has been accomplished by white hunters. 

It would obviously be impossible to ascertain 
the record bag for each and all of the game 
animals of Africa, and, even were it possible, the 
figures would be of very little interest in the great 
majority of cases, but that is not the purpose of 
this chapter. Its object is to give some details 
concerning two hunters whose great ail-round 
experience of African hunting merits special 
reference and whose careers have not been dealt 
with in earlier chapters. 

It is generally agreed that the hunter who 
amassed the finest collection of African trophies 
ever shot by one man was F. C. Selous, and it is 
therefore appropriate to deal with him first. 


The name of this great sportsman, naturalist, 
and explorer is probably more widely known 
than that of any other hunter of his generation* 
Other men have killed more elephants, lions, and 
other dangerous game, and others have been 
better shots, but as an accurate and skilled 
observer of nature, capable of imparting his 



knowledge to others, Selous had outstanding 
ability. His writings and lectures attracted a 
large public, and his highly trained powers of 
observation and deduction were so strictly 
accurate that everything that he wrote came to 
be regarded as authoritative, and therefore of the 
utmost value. All his books are written in a 
direct and straightforward manner, yet they 
impart vivid pictures of the scenes and incidents 
described, and they must always rank as classics 
in their particular line. 

The history of Selous's life is so well known, 
firstly through the agency of his own books, and 
secondly through the excellent biography written 
by J.G.Millais ("The Life of Frederick Courtenay 
Selous, D.S.O/ 1 1918), that I do not propose to 
deal more than very briefly with the main features 
of his career, but the concluding lists concerning 
the game that he shot may prove of interest. 

Born in 1851 and educated at Rugby, Selous 
spent a couple of years on the Continent before 
going out to South Africa, and it was at Unters- 
berg in Bavaria, in October, 1870, that he shot 
his first big game, two chamois falling to his rifle. 
At the age of nineteen he landed in South Africa, 
determined to become an elephant hunter, which 
at that date meant hunting on foot, since the 
majority of the elephants had retreated into the 



" fly " country of the interior. Armed with an 
old muzzle-loading, smooth-bore, single barrel 
elephant gun, weighing about 16 Ibs., and firing 
a 4oz. spherical ball, and endowed with a 
magnificent constitution and great fleetness of 
foot, Selous soon made his mark as a hunter; but 
elephants were rapidly becoming scarce, and as a 
paying proposition their pursuit was not what it 
once had been. Save for one holiday in England 
in 1875 Selous continued hunting and trading 
with a fair measure of success until 1881, when he 
returned home and shortly afterwards published 
the first of his books, " A Hunter's Wanderings 
in Africa ". By the end of 1881 he was back at 
the Cape however, and the next six years were 
mainly devoted to procuring specimens for 
museums and for his own and other private 
collections. It was during this period that he 
obtained many of the finest specimens in his un- 
rivalled collection of South African game, and 
most of his hunting during these years was done 
on horseback. In 1890 he led the pioneer expedi- 
tion of the Chartered Company into Mashonaland, 
and the two following years were taken up by 
survey and similar work. In 1892 he returned 
home and in 1893 he published "Travel and 
Adventure in South-East Africa >f , which covered 
that period of his life which followed the publica- 


tion of his first book. The same year saw him 
back again in Rhodesia and he assisted in the 
suppression of the first Matabele insurrection. 
He then decided to come home for good and 
shortly afterwards he married, but in 1895 he 
returned to Rhodesia to take up the management 
of an estate, and, as it happened, to serve through 
the second Matabele War. 

In 1894-95, and again in 1897, Selous visited 
Asia Minor, and his subsequent expeditions in 
pursuit of big game in various parts of the world 
may be summarised as follows: 1897 and 1898 
Wyoming, 1899 Transylvania, 1900 Canada and 
Newfoundland, 1901 Newfoundland, 1902 Sar- 
dinia, 1902-3 Kenya Colony, 1904 the Yukon, 1905 
Newfoundland, 1906 the Yukon, 1907 Asia Minor 
and Norway, 1909 Kenya Colony, 1911 Bahr-el- 
Ghazal, Sudan, and 1911-12 Kenya Colony. 

At the age of sixty-four, Selous went to East 
Africa to take his part in the Great War. He 
quickly distinguished himself, being promoted to 
a captaincy in the Royal Fusiliers and subse- 
quently being awarded the D.S.O. for his 
achievements in the field. 

In January, 1917, he was shot dead while lead- 
ing his company through the bush against an 
enemy four times their strength. Thus died a 
great Englishman for the country that he loved, 


in a country that he can hardly have loved less. 
Of his many services to the Empire and to 
science, of his almost miraculous escapes both 
from wild beasts and unfriendly natives, and of 
his brave, chivalrous, and modest character there 
is no need to speak, since all these aspects of his 
noble and adventurous life have been dealt with 
by others. Nothing could have been more 
significant however of the admiration and esteem 
in which he was held than the presentation to 
the Natural History Museum by the subscribers 
of the memorial to him, which took the form of a 
bust in bronze and which was unveiled on the 
loth June, 1920. During his lifetime he had 
given many valuable specimens to the museum, 
and in 1919 his own vast collection was presented 
to the nation by Mrs. Selous. With hardly any 
exceptions the 443 specimens of African game 
and the 81 specimens from Europe, Asia, and 
North America were shot by Selous himself, 

I have not found it possible to give the exact 
figures of all the game that he killed, but in the 
lists that follow I have given what I believe to be 
accurate details for some of the larger African 
game animals, together with a list of all the 
African species that he shot, whilst the American, 
European, and Asiatic lists represent, I think, the 
full extent of his bag in those countries* 



I have carefully compiled these lists from the 

following sources of information : his own books; 

" The Life of F. C. Selous " by J. G. Millais, 1918; 

the "Catalogue of the Selous Collection of Big 

Game in the British Museum (Natural History) " 

by J. G. Dollman, B.A., 1921; and from the 

article "Captain Selous and his Trophies M , 

Country Life, January I3th, 1917. 

List of certain of the larger game animals of 

Africa shot by F. C. Selous 

Elephants . . . 106 

Buffaloes . . . 177 

Lions . . . -3i 

White Rhinoceroses . . 23 

Black Rhinoceroses . . 28 

Giraffes .... 67 


Eland . . . .120 

Kudu .... 60 

Sable . . . 125 

Roan .... 88 

Gemsbuck ... 65 

Tsessebe . . . 139 

NOTE. In connection with these statistics it 

should be remembered that Selous started his 

career as a professional hunter and for many 

years he and his followers practically depended 

on what he shot, whilst the elephants were of 

of course killed for their tusks. 


List of the various species of African game shot 
by F. C. Selous 


White Rhinoceros 

Black Rhinoceros 


South African Buffalo 

East African Buffalo 



East African Serval 

South African Cheetah 

South African Giraffe 

Uganda Giraffe 

Reticulated Giraffe 

Mashonaland Eland 

East African Eland 

Sudan Derby Eland 


Lesser Kudu 

Sable Antelope 

Roan Antelope 


I bean Bi-isa 

Coke Hartebecst 

Nakuru Hartebecst 

Jackson Lclwel Hartebcest 

Seiborne Rooi Hartcbeest 

Lichtenstcin Hartebeest 



Tsesebe, or Sassaby 



Wildebeest, or Gnu 

Blue Wildebeest 

White-bearded Gnu 

Natal Duiker 

Ravine Red Duiker 

Blue Duiker 

Common Duiker 

Abyssinian Duiker 



Powell-Cotton's Oribi 

Nile Oribi 

Cape Steinbuck 

Transvaal Steinbuck 

East African Steinbuck 


Kenya Pigmy Antelope 

Desert Piginy Antelope 

Zululand Pigmy Antelope 

Cavendish's Dik-Dik 

Lesser Jubaland Dik-Dik 

Nyika Dik-Dik 

Smith's Dik-Dik 

Vaal Rhebok 


Ward's Reedbuck 

Rwi Rhebok 

Chanler's Reedbuck 




Uganda Kob 

White-eared Kob 


Pala. or Impala 

Jubaland Impala 

Thomson's Gazelle 

Black-snouted Thomson's 

Grant Gazelle 

Highland Bushbuck 
Chobe Bushbuck 
Cape Bushbuck 
Nyala, or Ingala 
Zambesi Situtunga 

Grevy's Zebra 



List of big game shot by F. C. Selous in 

North America * 

Moose .... 6 

Wapiti .... 9 

Osborn's Caribou . . 7 

Newfoundland Caribou . 9 

White-tailed Deer . . 2 

Mule Deer ... 7 

Prongbuck ... 2 

Canadian Lynx . . I 

Alaskan Timber Wolf . 2 

List of big game shot by F. C. Selous in 


Red Deer ... 6 
Reindeer . . . 5 

Chamois .... 8 
Sardinian Mouflon . . 5 

List of big game shot by F. C. Selous in 

Asia Minor 

Eastern Red Deer, or Maral i 
Wild Goat, or Pasang . . 6 

w. c. BALDWIN 

One of the few early hunters in South Africa to 
leave us actual details of their bag was William 
Charles Baldwin and he has only given the 

Excluding a few animal* shot for meat. 



statistics of his last expedition in 1860, but as an 
indication of the sport that South Africa afforded 
at that date it is of particular interest. 

Baldwin, who was a good shot and a first-rate 
horseman, went to Africa with the principal object 
of elephant hunting, but though he was fairly 
successful in this respect he never penetrated into 
Matabeleland which was then the main strong- 
hold of elephants in South Africa. Concerning 
his early life, he has said : " The love of sport, 
dogs, and horses was innate in me. From the 
age of six I had my two days a week on a pony 
with the neighbouring harriers ". Following his 
schooldays he spent some years on farms in Scot- 
land, but he did not settle seriously to the life and 
eventually he decided to go to Natal where he 
landed in December, 1851. From this date till 
1860 he hunted from Zululand to the Zambesi 
and west to Lake Ngami. 

Like most South African hunters of his time 
Baldwin did a good deal of night shooting at 
water-holes and desert fountains, and his best 
night's sport occurred during his last trip in 1860. 
On this particular night he shot 3 buffaloes, I 
white rhinoceros bull, i quagga, i lion, and i 

W. C Baldwin ; " African Hunting and Adventure from Natal 
to the Z*mbei " : 1894 : p. 390. 



On this same expedition one of his native 
hunters, Boccas, killed 3 harrisbuck (sable ante- 
lopes) with one bullet. This extraordinary feat 
was performed at night, shooting by moonlight, 

The following is a list of game killed by himself 
and three native hunters on his last expedition in 

61 Elephant 
2 Hippopotamus 

11 Rhinoceros, white 

12 Rhinoceros, black 

11 Giraffe 
21 Eland 
30 Buffalo 

12 Harrisbuck (Sable Antelopes) 
14 Roan Antelope 

2 Gemsbuck 

9 Koodoo 

4 Waterbuck 

i Hartebeest 

12 Tsessebe 

18 I m pa la 

1 Blesbuck 
25 Springbuck 

12 Blue Wildebeest 

2 Black Wildebeest 

W. C. Baldwin : " African Hunting and Adventure from Natal 
to the Zambesi " : 1894 : p. 42*. 



71 Quagga 

3 Duiker 
10 Steinbuck 

I Gryse Steinbuck 

1 Fall Rheebuck 

2 Striped Eland 

4 Lion 





QF the three species of rhinoceros that are recog- 
nized as inhabiting various parts of Asia, 
the great Indian rhinoceros is by far the largest 
These huge beasts may stand over 17 hands at the 
shoulder, and with their well-defined folds of 
skin, large tubercles on the hind-quarters, and 
relatively short single horns, they can hardly be 
described as handsome animals. Their range 
includes parts of the Nepal Terai, Cooch Behar, 
and Assam, and as they usually inhabit tall grass- 
jungles they are generally hunted for with a line 
of elephants. Owing to the great height of the 
grass the rhinoceroses form runs or tunnels which 
are often completely concealed from view. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain the 
record bag of these animals was made on the 
i6th February, 1886, by the Maharajah of Cooch 
Behar and his party. The following is the 
Maharajah's own account of this particular 
day : * M A blank day on the isth was followed 

1 " Tbirty-even Year* of Big Game Shooting in Cooch Behar, 
The Da*r. and A**am " : 1908: pp. 41/41. 



by a magnificent day's sport with rhino near 
Rossik Bheel and Chengtimari or rather half a 
day's, for we bagged five rhino before luncheon. 
I do not think this record has been beaten. Some 
of them showed great sport, charging through the 
line, and one of the new elephants got cut. The 
largest was 17 hds. and an inch at the shoulder, 
12 ft. 6 in. in length and had a girth of 112 in.". 
In the month's shoot which included this day 
the total bag of bigger game amounted to 19 
rhinoceroses, 28 buffaloes, 9 tigers, 5 bears and I 

On another occasion, on the 7th March, 1899, 
5 rhinoceroses were shot. They formed part of 
the bag of a most remarkable day's shooting 
when 15 head of big game were accounted for. 
The following are the details! : 

5 Rhinoceroses 
7 Buffaloes 

1 Bison 

2 Barasingh Stags 

Total 15 head in one day. 

The Maharajah o( Cooch Behar : *' Thirty-seven Yean of Big 
Game Shooting in Cooch Behar, The Duars, and Aasam " : 1908 : 
p, 40. 




The Maharajah's party this year included the 
following: HJR.H, the Count of Turin, Prince 
Teano, Count Carpenetto, Lords Lonsdale and 
Elphinstone, Sir Benjamin Simpson, Sir Henry 
Tichhorne, and Messrs. Vanderbyl, Hall Watson, 
Plowden, Prall, Gordon and Rajey. 

In Nepal, between the i8th and 28th December, 
1911, His Majesty the King and party, bagged 18 
rhinoceroses together with 44 head of other big 


The Gaur, commonly called the Indian bison, 
is one of the grandest game animals to be found 
in India and the head of an old bull is a most 
imposing trophy. In colour the females and 
males are reddish brown, but as the males become 
adult they grow darker, and old bulls are nearly 
black. The hair is fine, short, and glossy, and in 
old bulls it becomes very thin on the back. Gaur 
are easily distinguished by the curved crest be- 
tween the horns, which are more or less flattened, 
particularly in the bulls. These handsome beasts 
may stand 6 feet at the shoulder and their range 
includes all the larger forest areas of India. They 
prefer hilly country, and they exist in herds of 
about a dozen individuals, though old bulls are 

Mmjor-Onerai Nigel Woody at t : " My Sporting Memorie* " ; 
P- * 



almost invariably solitary in their habits. Hunt- 
ing these solitary bulls is one of the finest sports 
in India, and if suddenly surprised there is an 
element of danger in their pursuit. Gaur are shy 
and retiring by nature and if much persecuted 
they become exceedingly difficult to approach. 

Owing to the nature of the ground which they 
inhabit they are usually hunted on foot, but in 
some districts they may be shot from elephants 
and the largest bags have been made by these 

The record bag of bison appears to have been 
made by The Maharajah of Cooch Behar and his 
party in March, 1902, when no less than eleven of 
these animals were shot in a single day. 

The following is his own description of this 
notable day's sport : * " Between thirty and forty 
bison had been marked down at a place north- 
east of Dhun Bheel .... On taking up our posi- 
tions, I was the last flank stop on the east side, 
and as it chanced the whole herd came out in a 
procession past me, ending up with two buD 
which I killed in addition to a very fine cow. 
Before we had done with them, eleven bison, 
three bull and eight cow, were down, a record 
bag of bison for one day. The largest bull stood 
17 hands tf* at the shoulder and 18 hands 3f * 

" Thirty*even Years of Big Game Shooting in Cooch Behar, 
The Duara, and Assam " : 1008 : p. 329, 


at the hump, the horns were 77" round the curv< 
and i8J" at the base. The largest cow stood 
17 hands i$" and had horns of 73^" round curves, 
which, I am inclined to think, is also a record. 
A Sambhur stag completed the bag ". 

The Maharajah's party this year included Mr. 
and Mrs. Pelham Clinton, Colonel and Mrs. Burn, 
Colonel and Mrs. Baird, Mr. and Mrs. Forrest, 
Lord Helmsley, Colvin, James, and Jit. 

Considering that only 48 bison were killed on 
the Maharajah's domains between the years 1871 
and 1907 it makes this one day's sport all the 
more remarkable. 


The blackbuck or Indian antelope is perhaps 
the most beautiful and elegant game animal to be 
found in India. They are characterized by the 
spiral twist of the horns of the bucks and the dark 
and handsome colour of the hair of the upper 
parts in fully adult members. 

They are found on the open plains where they 
frequent both grass and corn-lands. Their range 
extends from the foot of the Himalaya nearly to 
Cape Comorin wherever the country is suitable 
to their requirements. They are usually to be 
seen in herds of from ten to thirty or forty with 
perhaps only one fully adult buck among them. 



In some districts herds of several hundred indi- 
viduals are to be met with and Lydekker states 
that the assemblages may sometimes include 
thousands of individuals. 

They are capable of great speed when running 
and the sport of coursing them with cheetahs has 
been fully and well described by more than one 

In some districts they will allow carts or 
even men to approach quite close and they may 
be shot after a concealed approach under the 
cover of a horse, bullock, or cart. If much 
harassed they soon become wild, when it is diffi- 
cult to obtain other than long shots. Under all 
circumstances the vital points of a blackbuck 
afford but a small mark and accurate shooting is 
essential in order to kill them cleanly. 

The largest bag of blackbuck that I can find 
recorded is mentioned by Lieut-Col. Reginald 
Heber Percy, though, unfortunately, he does not 
mention the names of those who participated in 
the sport. He writes as follows : * " The biggest 
bag of blackbuck the writer knows of was 64 
bucks in 1883, by two guns in five days and a 
half. Of these, 10 bucks, whose horns were all 
over 22 in. in length, were shot by one of the 
sportsmen in a morning's work ". 

Badminton Library : " Big Game " : 1894 : Vol. II : p. 35*. 


Sir Edward Braddon once killed 8 blackbuck 
and i doe in a single day in Oudh,* In his excel- 
lent book, " Thirty Years of Shikar ", he refers 
to this day's shooting in the following terms : " I 
became blas6 as to this form of sport after killing 
twenty-two bucks in three consecutive days. I 
might possibly have escaped from this feeling but 
for the result of the third day of these three; .... 
on the evening of that third day, when the car- 
casses of eight blackbuck and a doe (killed by 
a bullet that had first penetrated and killed a 
buck) nine carcasses in all were hanging from 
the branches of trees around my tent, I felt I was 
a butcher undisguised ". 


These massively-built deer stand from 48 to 50 
inches in height, though in Ceylon, according to 
Sir Samuel Baker, a buck in his prime will stand 
fourteen hands high at the shoulder, and will 
weigh 600 Ibs., live weight Though most abun- 
dant in hilly districts the low country sambar are 
usually the largest. The body of the sambar is 
covered with coarse hair, dark brown in colour, 
and in all, the neck is more or less maned with 
bristly hair, which may be six inches in length. 

Sir Edward Braddon : " Thirty Year* of Shikar " : 1895 : p. 370, 



The antlers, which are often very rugose on the 
surface, are subject to considerable variation, but 
normally they have a single brow tine above 
which the beam rises nearly straight to terminate 
in a simple fork. They are nocturnal in their 
habits and are seldom found in greater numbers 
than two or three together, more usually being 

In India they are, I think, invariably killed 
with the rifle, but in the mountainous districts 
of Ceylon they may be hunted with hounds where 
they afford first-rate sport. 

The records of sport with sambar are more 
difficult to ascertain than the details of the bags 
of the more important Indian animals, but possi- 
bly Sir Samuel W. Baker killed more of these 
animals than any other man. 

During eight years' residence in Ceylon he kept 
a powerful pack of hounds at Newera Ellia and 
hunted sambar regularly for several years. I 
have already shown in some notes on his life in 
Chapter II that he killed approximately 400 
sambar in Ceylon, and in later years he shot a 
good many in India, but the exact number is 
not known. In Ceylon he hunted entirely on 
foot and he never carried a spear, his hunting- 
knife being the only support for the dogs. This 
sport, as conducted by Baker, must have been 



most exhilarating; he described it very fully in 
" The Rifle and Hound in Ceylon ", published in 
1854. It was carried on at an altitude of from 
6,200 to 7,000 feet in a country of plains, 
separated by belts of forest, rapid rivers, water- 
falls, and precipices. "Thoroughly sound in 
wind and limb " says Baker, and " with no super- 
fluous flesh, must be the man who would follow 
the hounds in this wild country through jungles, 
rivers, plains, and deep ravines, sometimes from 
sunrise to sunset without tasting food since the 
previous evening, with the exception of a cup of 
coffee and piece of toast before starting. It is 
trying work, but it is a noble sport; no weapon 
but the hunting-knife; no certainty as to the 
character of the game that may be found; it may 
be either an elk (sambar), or a boar, or a leopard; 
and yet the knife and the good hounds are all that 
can be trusted in ". 

" It is a glorious sport certainly to a man who 
thoroughly understands it; the voice of every 
hound familiar to his ear, the particular kind of 
game that is found is at once known to him long 
before he is in view by the style of hunting. If an 
elk is found, the hounds follow with a burst straight 
as a line, and at a killing pace, directly up the hill, 
till he at length turns and bends his headlong 
course for some stronghold in a deep river to bay" 9 . 



No doubt all lovers of dogs, and what sports- 
man is not, would regard sainbar hunting as 
superior to sambar shooting, but it falls to the lot 
of few men to be able to maintain and regularly 
hunt a pack of hounds in a wild country. 


The chital, otherwise known as the axis, or 
Indian spotted deer, is probably the most beauti- 
ful member of the family to which it belongs. 
Their chestnut-coloured coats are spotted at all 
ages and seasons, and their antlers are more 
graceful than those of the sambar. They are to 
be met with both in hilly ground, and on the 
plains, in park-like country, and in jungle, but 
never far from their drinking places. 

The rifle undoubtedly accounts for the greater 
proportion of the chital that are killed, but in suit- 
able country they may be ridden and speared if 
they are caught in the early morning after a heavy 
feed, and they may also be coursed with grey- 
hounds or dogs of that type. 

In the first half of the last century, these animals 
swarmed in certain parts of Ceylon, and it is 
probable that the largest bags were made at that 
period and in that country rather than in India. 


In those days Ceylon must have been a veritable 
paradise for the big game hunter, though owing, 
presumably, to some deficiency in the quality of 
the soil, the antler, horn, and ivory growth in the 
island has always been inferior compared with 
India. There are very few references to chital 
shooting as it was in those distant days, but Sir 
Samuel W. Baker writes as follows : * " In the 
vicinity of the coast, among the ' flat plains and 
thorny jungles/ there is always excellent shooting 
at particular seasons. The spotted deer abound 
throughout Ceylon, especially in these parts, 
where they are often seen in herds of a hundred 
together. In many places they are far too 
numerous, as, from want of inhabitants in these 
parts, there are no consumers, and these beautiful 
beasts would be shot to waste ". 

" In the neighbourhood of Paliar, and Illepeca- 
d6w6 on the north-west coast, I have shot them 
till I was satiated and it ceased to be sport. We 
had nine fine deer hanging up in one day, and 
they were putrifying faster than the few inhabi- 
tants could preserve them by smoking and drying 
them in steaks. I could have shot them in any 
number, had I chosen to kill simply for the sake 
of murder/ 1 

" The Rifle and Hoand to Ceylon " : 1654 : p. 166. 


On another occasion in this same part of the 
country, Baker, twice in one day, killed two deer 
with one shot, and in the vicinity of the Yalte 
river he records shooting three fine bucks and two 
buffaloes in a stroll with the rifle before break- 


These animals never attain such dimensions as 
the brown bear, and, according to Blanford, the 
weight of a full grown male varies from 200 to 
250 Ibs., though the same animal will vary greatly 
according to the season. They are good climbers, 
and, as a rule, they are vegetable feeders, though 
they have been known to take to killing domestic 
animals. They are savage by nature and prone 
to attack if molested, and a large number of 
natives are mauled annually when defending the 
fruit crops from invasion. They may be stalked 
with comparative ease or they may be driven, but 
they can hardly be said to afford an exciting form 
of sport. 

No very large bags of these animals appear to 
have been made except by driving, but by these 
means Mr. P. B. Van der Byl records 40 as 

The Ria* %nd Hound in Ceylon " : 1854 : p 197. 

having been shot in three days.* He writes as 
follows : " In November a wonderful migration 
of black bears takes place, from the vale of 
Kashmir westward into the district of Poonch; 
and the rajah of that place has an annual shoot 
lasting three or four days, at which I was once 
privileged to attend. A vast number of beaters 
are employed, and machans, or platforms, are 
placed in trees, so that there is little risk to the 
sportsman, though casualties among the beaters 
are not uncommon. As many as forty bears are 
sometimes killed in this manner in three days ". 

It is probable that the biggest mixed bag of the 
larger game animals of India is that which I have 
mentioned earlier in the chapter, when, 7 buffa- 
loes, 5 rhinoceroses, i bison, and 2 Barasingh 
stags, were shot by the Maharajah of Cooch 
Behar's party in a single day's sport on the 7th 
March, 1899. 

A well mixed bag to one rifle is recorded by 
Lieut-Col. Reginald Heber Percy. He does not 
mention the sportsman's name, but in one day's 
shooting in 1875, the rifle in question bagged, 2 
nylghai, 5 ravine deer, and 3 blackbuck; total, 10 
head of game, f 

Mr. R. P. Cobbold made a notable mixed bag 

" The Con at Home and Abroad " : 1915 : Vol. IV : p. 134. 
f Badminton Library : " Big Gam* " : 1894 : Vol. II : p. 35* 



in the Central Provinces in 1897. Between 
March ist and June ist he accounted for the 
following* : 

Tigers . . .11 
Panthers . . 3 

Buffaloes ... 4 
Bison .... 2 
Bears .... 4 
Sambar and Chital . 2 

Total . . .26 head. 

In connection with this bag it is particularly 
noteworthy that no animal wounded escaped. 

Few records are available of the quantity of 
big game shot on a large area of ground over a 
period of years. The following statistics taken 
from " Thirty-seven Years of Big Game Shooting 
in Cooch Behar, The Duars, and Assam " may 
therefore prove of interest. 

Total big game shot during the thirty-seven years 


Tiger . . .365 
Leopard . . . 311 
Rhino . . . 207 
Bison ... 48 

* The Field " : jitt Jly 1897. 


Buffalo . . 438 

Bear . 133 

Sambhur . . -259 

Barasingh . . 318 

NOTE. These figures refer to the game killed by 
the Maharajah of Cooch Behar and his 



A LTHOUGH various species of the wild pig are 
recognized, they form a puzzling group to 
zoologists, and such differences as exist, are com- 
paratively slight. Though varying considerably 
in size, the chief characteristics of the wild boar 
are the same wherever he is found, and to the 
hunters of all ages he has always been regarded 
as game " par excellence ". The character of the 
boar cannot fail but to make a strong appeal to 
the true sporting instinct. Rarely disposed to 
attack unprovoked, he will, when brought to bay, 
charge men, dogs, horses, or elephants with a dis- 
play of courage unsurpassed by any other beast. 
Instances of boars killing or beating off tigers are 
not unknown, and, once roused, only death will 
stay their capacity for doing mischief. 

Where the nature of the ground permits of the 
use of horse and spear, the great sport of pig- 
sticking may be indulged in, but throughout a 
great part of the pig's range the rifle is the only 
practicable weapon. 



Whether ridden with spear, hunted with 
hounds, or driven to the rifle, the boar is capable 
of affording sport of a high-class nature, and 
owing to his indomitable courage he is respected 
by sportsmen the world over. 

The record bags of wild boar belong to the 
seventh century when Saxony, Bavaria, Wiirtem- 
berg, and some of the smaller Duchies formed an 
enormous preserve for red deer, wild boar, and 
other game. The Elector John George I of 
Saxony, who reigned from 1611 to 1656, killed no 
less than 31,902 wild boar, whilst his son who 
succeeded him and reigned till 1680 accounted for 
22,298.* As fuller details concerning the careers 
of these great hunters occur in Chapter XI, we can 
pass on to other records. 

A notable bag of the sixteenth century was 
made by the Landgrave John George of Branden- 
burg, who in the year 1581 accounted for 501 
wild boar, 677 stags, and 968 hinds, t In connec- 
tion with these early records it must be remem- 
bered that the firearms of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries were very clumsy and of an 
exceedingly primitive nature, though the prepara- 
tions for a great boar hunt were very elaborate. 
Miles of movable four-foot fencing were utilized, 
and under the oppressive " service of the chase " 

" Sport in the Alp* " : 1896 : p. 170. 
f OxJTp. 177 



hundreds of peasants might be employed for 
weeks on end. It is difficult to conceive the 
amount of damage to the crops of the unfortunate 
peasantry which the preservation of such enor- 
mous numbers of wild boar must have caused. 
With no compensation for damage to property 
and a penalty for killing game which might well 
be death, the lot of the peasants must have been 
a hard one. 

Under modern conditions of sport the record 
bag would seem to have been made in Poland as 
recently as January, 1931, and the following par- 
ticulars of this shoot appeared in " The Field " of 
March 7th, 1931. On the estate of Prince Charles 
Radziwill at Maukiewicze, on January i6th, iTth 
and i8th, 146 wild boar and 4 wolves were killed 
by twelve rifles. " Of these 130 were killed in the 
first two days, which constitutes a record wild 
boar shoot. The guns were : The President of 
Poland (His Excellency M. Ignacy Moscicki) and 
three of his personal staff, Princes Charles and 
Jerome Radziwill, Count B. Tyszkiewiez and his 
son, Count Grochowlski, Count Paul Potocki, 
Col Wolkowycki and Gen. Carton de Wiart ". 

" The method of driving the boar is as follows : 
Seven hundred or so beaters form a huge peri- 
meter, in the centre of which the rifles are aligned 
in a ride, some 70 or 80 yards apart These 



beaters stand fast, while another lot advance into 
the forest and start the pig moving. The forest 
itself is a marsh and only passable when it is 
frozen over. When these beaters get to within 
200 or 300 yards of the rifles they also stand fast. 
By that time the pig are well on the move. They 
then retire and advance again, and so move any 
that may have been left behind ". At one stand 
Count Paul Potocki killed twelve boar without 
missing, and all were shot stone dead, just behind 
the shoulder. 

In Count Joseph Potocki's forest of Schepe- 
towka, Volhynia, ten rifles shot over a hundred 
wild boar together with 77 roebucks in four days' 
shooting in 1912.* In this district some of the 
wild boar attain an enormous size, and some 
readers will be familiar with the magnificent 
mounted specimen in the Natural History 
Museum, London, which was presented by Count 
Joseph Potocki. 

At the annual shoots in the Royal Forests at 
Godollo in Hungary, large bags are also made. 
During the drives in the winter of 1929-30, 83 boar 
were shot, and in the following year the bag was 
73, of which eight weighed over 400 Ibs., the best 
scaling 456 Ibs. f One of the rifles on the latter 

Count, R P. in UU. I5th April 19*9 
f " The Field " : /th February 



occasion was the Maharajah of Patiala, who is 
probably one of the most brilliant all-round shots 
of his time. Equally at home with the shot-gun, 
he took part as a judge in the field trials at 
Ludlow in 1928 and there got 55 birds with 56 

In Spain one of the finest boar shoots is that of 
the Goto Donana where the Duke of Tarifa con- 
centrated the big game shooting on a single 
annual function. In January, 1923, during three- 
and-a-half days' shooting, the guns averaging 
twenty, accounted for a total of 101 head of big 
game of which 39 were wild boar.f 

In Ceylon Sir Samuel W. Baker hunted these 
animals with his hounds and no other weapon 
than the hunting-knife, and so also did Snr. J. P. 
Falcao, a great Portuguese Nimrod. Concerning 
the methods and skill of the latter the Count 
D'Arnoso has written as follows: "with his 
hunting-knife unsheathed ", he approaches the 
boar at bay " from behind, jumps upon it, grips 
with his knees, as in a vice, the flanks of the 
animal, and, while grasping with his left hand the 
thick mane on the creature's chine, plunges, with 
his right hand, the knife into the animal's body 
behind the right shoulder-blade, between the first 

" The Field : arth Dumber 
I ibid. lw . 



and second ribs, killing it almost instantaneously. 
This he does with such courage, dexterity, and 
accuracy, that never has a wild boar hunted by 
his pack escaped him; and he has never once, in 
these deadly struggles, suffered the least injury, 
though his hounds have at times been fearfully 
wounded ". 

No reference to the wild boar would be com- 
plete without some details concerning pig-sticking 
I do not know if it is the absolute record, but the 
following are the details of the most productive 
meet of which I have knowledge. On January 
2Qth and 3Oth, 1906, at Moescoondie, 17 spears 
accounted for 149 boar. Malcolm Crawford was 
the host and organizer at this memorable meet, 
and from a detailed account which appeared in 
" The Field ", written by one of the participants, 
I take the following extracts : " Moescoondie is, 
or was for it may have been washed away 
during the last eighteen years of inundations of 
the river an island in the Ganges in Lower 
Bengal, about twelve miles long by three wide. 
At first it was covered with the grass and jhow 
jungle which is peculiar to rivers in India. Then 
cultivation was started on it At first it was im- 
possible to get the ryots to tackle it, as after the 
jungle had been cleared in patches with infinite 
toil the pig came out and destroyed all the crops, 



but by degrees the jungle was pushed back until 
it was small enough to be beaten, and in 1906 the 
island was at its best from a hunting point of view. 

The plan of action was simple. The 

spears were divided into parties of three. The 
patches of jungle were enormous and the line was 
made up of 200 men with Crawford himself in 
charge, ably backed by Billy Barker and his 
assistants from the outlying factories. Most of 
the parties rode with the line, but some of them 
were posted outside the jungle. The line was 
most skilfully worked and there were no gaps in 
it, but for some time nothing showed. Then a 
few smallish pig began to break across the plain 
towards the next cover, and suddenly the plain 
was black with hundreds of pig of every size 
making their way across the open. Never have 
I seen such a sight ! Portly matrons, followed by 
strings of striped piglings no bigger than rabbits; 
young boars, still showing the brown coat of the 
yearling, 26 in. pig, black as night, quick on their 
feet, more ready to run than to fight; and then 
the lords of the harem, ploughing their way 
through the press like great galleons, shouldering 
the smaller fry to right and left. Truly a sight 
to dream of, but only to be seen once in a life- 
" All idea of parties was forgotten. Each man 



picked his boar, let in the spurs and rode him, 
the trouble being to avoid the smaller pig, which 
were continually getting in the way. 

" George Paris was brought down like this by a 
crossing pig early in the day, and retired with 
concussion and a cheek split from chin to ear, so 
that the subsequent proceedings interested him no 
more. ' 

" It was no place for children. In the open the 
odds were in favour of horse and man, but in 
cover it was different. The grass and jhow was 
almost up to the waist of a mounted man, and a 
hunted boar had a habit of squatting so that the 
rider overshot the mark, and the boar charged 
in behind. The going was quite blind and full 
of holes, and the only thing to do was to leave 
the horse's head alone, harden one's heart and 
drive him through it. The man who pulled rein 
and rode with caution always met with disaster." 

" Most of the men and horses knew the game 
and could be backed to ride and kill their quarry 
single-handed, but that was not the only reason 
for the tremendous bag of 149 boar killed in the 
two days. The main reason was that these 
magnificent hog seemed to prefer to fight than to 
ran, and most of them were killed after a quarter 
of a mile burst Men whose names are famous 
in the annals of the Kadir and up-country hunts, 

like Medlicott of Skinner's Horse, and Pritchard, 
of the 2nd Lancers, have told me that though they 
have ridden many boar, they have never met 
anything to equal for undaunted courage the 
great grey boar of Moescoondie, who turns on his 
pursuer unwounded and almost unridden, full of 
the lust of battle, and charges home reckless of 
life, as ready to kill as to be killed." 

On the first day three men tied with ten boar 
apiece to their credit, the total bag being 76 head, 
and on the second day 73 more were accounted 
for to make up the huge total of 149 for the two 




pROM time immemorial the red deer stag has 
been the supreme object of the chase 
throughout Europe, and to some of the privileged 
minority who enjoyed the right of the chase in 
the middle ages, the red stag was the passion of 
their lives. Since the death penalty could be 
enforced for acts of poaching, it can with truth be 
said that the life of a stag counted for more than 
the life of a man. In one case men were bartered 
for the horns of a stag, as history relates that a 
company of tall Grenadiers was given in ex- 
change for the great sixty-six pointer shot in 1696 
by the Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg, 
and we are also told that the refusal of the crown 
of Bohemia by the Elector John George, was not 
so much due to reasons of State as to the fact 
that the Bohemian stags were inferior both in 
numbers and size. Wars, rebellions, fires and 
other troubles have taken toll of some of the great 
collections of trophies that have come down to us, 



but some still exist in which the trophies are to 
be counted not by the hundred but by the 
thousand. At Moritzburg is preserved the finest 
collection of antlers in the world, and this is but 
a portion of the original, since Augustusburg, 
which housed the pick of the collection, was 
completely destroyed by fire early in the 
eighteenth century. The majority of the best 
heads at Moritzburg were weeded out from 
Augustusburg in 1725, so one can only speculate 
as to the treasures that the latter must have con- 
tained. In Moritzburg hang the largest pair of 
antlers known. This mighty head has a span of 
75^ inches, but of its origin we know nothing, 
since its history cannot be traced further back 
than 1586, in which year it is enumerated in an 
inventory of the Elector Augustus's heirlooms. 
There were indeed giants in those days, and the 
great heads that hang in this old castle are 
magnificent memorials of hunting in mediaeval 

Modern methods of shooting are too well under- 
stood to call for comment, but in dealing with the 
records of the sport it is convenient to keep the 
Continental and Scottish statistics separate, whilst 
some notes concerning sport with the acclima- 
tized deer of New Zealand will be found at the 
end of the chapter. 




There can be little doubt that the man who 
killed the greatest number of red deer in all 
history was the Elector John George II of Saxony, 
whose bag amounted to the truly amazing total of 
43,649, whilst his father John George I, whose 
reign was greatly disturbed by wars, accounted 
for 35,421 red deer.* 

The largest number of deer bagged in a single 
Continental hunt that I can find recorded is 
072 stags which were killed at a court battue 
in 1613.1 

The two Electors of Saxony mentioned above 
were probably the greatest slaughterers of big 
game in the whole history of shooting, but before 
discussing their astonishing careers tribute must 
be paid to the work of W. A. Baillie-Grohman, 
whose knowledge of European sport was 
perhaps unrivalled by any other Englishman. 
Exhaustive research among private archives and 
in the state libraries of Vienna, Dresden, Munich, 
Gotha, Stuttgart, etc., yielded a quantity of 
historical matter of the utmost interest, and it is 
largely from his writings that the figures and 
substance of the following notes are taken. 

* W. A. BftiU*e-Crohm*fi : " Sport in the Alpt " : 1896 : p 170 
f ibid p. 177 (the locality it not stated), 



REIGNED 1611-1656 AND 1656-1680* 

The following summary of game killed by 
these two mighty hunters was compiled from 
reliable sources by W. A. Baillie-Grohman. 

B Ice tor 
John George I. 


John George II 

of both. 


Red deer 
Fallow deer 

Total of deer 47.955 62.575 "O,530 

Wild boar 

... 31,902 




... 238 




... 3.872 








... 12,047 




... 19.015 















Wild cats 




Concerning these figures, Baillie-Grohman 
makes the following comments : " In Elector 
John George Fs own MS. Hunting Diaiy, two 
gorgeously bound volumes, in part illuminated, 
preserved in the Dresden Royal Library, there is 



a complete list of all game caught, shot, and 
chased by this great hunter. It gives the total 
of deer at 47,239 head,* while Sylvanus, from 
whom the above lists are taken, gives a total of 
47955 head. How this discrepancy arose it 
would be difficult to say. There is another 
and more serious discrepancy in the number 
of bears and wolves. The former state that 
the father killed only 102 bears and 818 
wolves, while Sylvanus gives the figures as 238 
bears and 3,872 wolves. This probably arises 
from the fact that the former is the number killed 
by the Elector with his own hands, the latter 
those that were killed by the whole court per- 
sonage. Tanzer, who wrote about the beginning 
of the following century, is very particular in 
saying that the deer were killed by the Elector 
John George I himself." 

These enormous bags of game are all the more 
remarkable when it is remembered that they were 
made at a time when firearms were of a fearfully 
cumbersome nature. The personal equipment 
of the Electors, consisting of guns, powder horns, 
game bags, etc., has been exhibited at Continental 
hunting exhibitions. What their weapons lacked 
in handiness and range was made up for by the 
elaborate methods of driving the game. Miles of 

* Of which 24,563 were stags, 



palisades and the services of hundreds of beaters 
ensured the game being brought to within reason- 
able range. 

Ths heaviest of the properly authenticated stags 
killed by the Electors was a beast shot on the 
I7th August 1646, which weighed 61 stone 
i libs., presumably as he stood, and 59 of the 
elder Elector's harts exceeded 56 stone. 

No less remarkable than the weights of the 
stags were the horns that some of them carried 
as the following table shows: 

The finest antler* obtained by John George I. John George II. 

Head of 30 points ... i 

28 ... i 

26 ... i 

24 3 

,,22 9 6 

20 25 26 

18 133 54 

16 ... 374 295 

14 1.202 985 

12 ... 3,147 2,108 

Baillie-Grohman states that " the Electors of 
Saxony, owing to their ancient hereditary dignity 
of ' Lord High Masters of the Chase ' to the Holy 
Roman Empire, enjoyed since 1350 exceptional 
opportunities to hunt, for this dignity gave them 
the right to exercise the rights of the chase in 



districts outside the confines of Saxony, which 
were ' Reichsunmittelbar ', viz., which owed 
allegiance directly and only to the Emperor of 
Germany. In 1665, John George II rebuilt at 
vast cost a high palisade fence along the whole 
boundary between Saxony and Bohemia, so 
that his stags could not stray. The Elector 
Augustus had in the preceding century erected 
this immense fence, but it had fallen into 
disrepair ". 

An interesting series of letters written by John 
George I to the Emperor Ferdinand was formerly 
preserved in the private archives of the Imperial 
family at Vienna. Concerning this interesting 
correspondence, Baillie-Grohman informs us that 
" thousands of stags are enumerated therein; the 
exact date and place where the heaviest were 
shot, what they weighed, and in the case of many 
of the larger ones the Elector even gives, by a 
line drawn on the margin of the paper, the so- 
called 'line of pride 1 , representing the actual 
thickness of the layer of fat on the stag's 
haunches, and, now and again, also a second line 
indicating the thickness of the fat on the beast's 
brisket Some of the former obtained from stags 
killed in the ' pride of grease ', i.e., in the month 
preceding the rot when the animals are in the 
best condition, measure over 4 inches ". 



Other early hunting diaries and MSS. have 
yielded some astonishing records. The Land* 
grave John George of Brandenburg, when writing 
to the Landgrave of Hesse, gives him details of 
his bag for the past year (1581) as consisting of 
677 stags, 968 hinds, and 501 wild boar. It was 
a Landgrave of Hesse who, so we are told, 
insisted on substituting in the Lord's Prayer an 
entreaty to " Give us our daily hart in the pride 
of grease". " The Dukes of Wiirtemberg were also 
great deer-hunters; thus Eberhard III of that ilk 
stalked during the rut of 1655 in eight days in a 
single forest, that of Urach, one stag of twenty 
points, one of eighteen points, seven of sixteen 
and fourteen points, and six of twelve and ten 
points; while his successor, Duke Eberhard Louis, 
in the same period bagged one stag of twenty-two 
points, one of eighteen points, eight of sixteen 
points, and sixteen of fourteen points, not to 
mention the stags of lesser heads, of which in both 
instances a number were killed." 

Empresses and duchesses of those far off days 
were equally keen in the pursuit of the hart. It is 
recorded that Princess Frederica of Eisenach, who 
was noted for her skill in deer-stalking, shot on 
2ist August, 1693, in the Pillnitz Forest a stag of 
twenty-six points, which scaled 60 stone lolbs,, and 
was even then a remarkable weight, whilst Maria, 



Governess ot the Netherlands, could not only track 
her stag and bring him down with her cross-bow, 
but in the end could alsogralloch her fallen quarry. 

In France the chase was the all-absorbing 
subject until the outbreak of the Revolution. 
According to Le Comte Edouard Guy du 
Passage,* Louis XV, on his way back from his 
coronation at Reims, " drove in a carriage to his 
first hunt, in the Villers-Cotterets Forest, on St. 

Hubert's Day, 1722 The King gave himself 

up to his hunting with all the eagerness of youth. 
Francois Mouret, his valet who rode behind the 
King at every hunt carrying a wallet with a 
change of clothes tells us that in 1725 the King 
hunted 276 days, was present at 362 kills, and 
rode 3,121 leagues. From 1743 to 1767, the kills 
by the Great Pack alone amounted to 2,651 stags. 
The Great Pack had from forty to ninety couples 
of different breeds, namely, the Norman breed, 
with a grey coat; mongrels resulting from a cross 
between English dogs and Norman or Vend6e 
bitches; and English foxhounds. The number of 
the latter increased every year, for Louis XV kept 
on buying them, since, as years went on, the King 
required more and more speed from his pack. 
St Hubert dogs acted as bloodhounds 

" The wild-boar hunting train and those of the 

* *' Country Life " : 9th December 1923. 


wolf, roebuck and deer the latter known as the 
Green Hunt, which was placed under the direc- 
tion of M. de Dampierre and given to Mesdames 
the King's daughters included a staff of more 
than five hundred noblemen, each of them being on 
duty for three months at a time. Two hundred and 
fifty horses were exclusively appropriated to the 
use of the Great Pack, fifty to the Wild-Boar Hunt, 
and a hundred to the others. The grand Ecuries, 
where two thousand horses were stabled, provided 
the courtiers or the King's guests with mounts/' 

His successor to the throne was an equally 
enthusiastic sportsman. 

With the storming of the Bastille on the I4th 
July, 1789, it might be expected that the diary of 
Louis XVI would contain some reference to that 
day's happenings. The sole entry, however, is 
fl killed nothing ", whilst on the 5th of the follow- 
ing October, the day on which the hordes of 
11 Great Unwashed " hurled themselves upon 
Versailles, the only entry is as follows : " Shot at 
the gate of Chatillon, killed 81 head, interrupted 
by events; went and returned on horseback." 

Modern bags appear insignificant in compari- 
son with the huge totals of the seventeenth 
century, but it is interesting to note that the record 
bag of red deer in the nineteenth century stands 
to tibe credit of a descendant of the great Elector 



of SaXony with whom we have already dealt. 
The bag of Duke Ernest II of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 
is, so far as I have been able to trace, the record of 
modern times. Between 1837 and 1886 the Duke 
shot 3,283 red deer, of which 2,316 were stags,* 


Springing from a dynastic race distinguished 
for its devotion to the chase, and as owner of some 
of the finest shooting in Europe, this great sports- 
man prince is one of the most notable figures in 
the history of continental sport. 

Described as of knightly bearing and with the 
frame of a Hercules, his ideas on sport were in 
close accord with English views, and he was with- 
out doubt one of the most brilliant rifle shots of 
his own or any other day. 

His bag of 3,283 red deer is unlikely ever again 
to be equalled, and of the 2,316 stags that he shot 
were one of 24 points, two of 22, four of 20, eight 
of 18, and 164 of 16 and 14 points, f 

Mr. W. A. Baiilie-Grohman, who was privileged 
to be his guest on many occasions, says that " as 
the Duke was in the habit of annually visiting 
all his sporting estates, and was, moreover, a fre- 
quent guest at the shooting parties of royal kins- 
men, every day of the season was carefully 

Badminton Library : " Big Game Shooting : Voi. II : p. til. 
t Horn These figures do not include what be thot between 18*7 
and 1693, the year that be died. 



planned out months before. The year began for 
him, as he would say, with a three weeks' visit 
to Tyrol, where the season for chamois opens on 
I5th July. On returning to his Thuringian forests 
he usually devoted the four weeks following the 
I5th August to his deer, their antlers being then 
4 clean ', and the animals themselves in perfect 
condition. As stalking at that season of the year 
is, of course, impossible in dense forest, driving 
had to be resorted to, and for this purpose the 
ground was divided into districts separated by 
avenue-like cuttings through the forest, in which 

the guns were posted As the rides were 

narrow, and stags invariably ' rush ' these open 
spaces, the shooting was not the easiest. The 
Duke generally occupied a Hochstand, i.e., a plat- 
form raised some 8 or 10 feet over the ground, 
from which elevation he, of course, commanded 
a wider field. The Thuringian stags, though in 
size nothing like to the Hungarian red deer, are 
considerably larger animals than the Scotch deer, 
and carry finer heads. In the fifty-six years in 
which the Duke shot these forests, he killed seven 
stags of from twenty to twenty-four points, and 
over 200 of from fourteen to eighteen points. He 
was one of the finest game shots with the rifle I 
have ever met with, and he used to make some 
marvellous shots with his favourite 450 Henry 



Express. Thus I saw him once get a right and 
left across a valley at two deer in full flight. Some 
discussion arising as to the distance, he ordered it 
to be measured, and it was found to be 440 metres, 
or about 480 yards. 

" On one occasion, when he was the guest of 
the old Emperor of Germany in the well-stocked 
forests of Letzlingen, the host was prevented by 
indisposition from going out, and the Duke, as the 
oldest royal personage present, was given the post 
usually occupied by the Emperor. The drive 
lasted three hours, and, when it was over, thirty- 
two stags were found lying in front of the Duke's 
' stand '. What was remarkable about it was that 
every stag, however speedy the rush of the animal 
may have been, had been laid low by the ' master 
shot* through the shoulder, just over the heart 

On another occasion, a few years before, 

when driving the Inselberg in the Thuringian 
forest, the Duke with two double shots killed four 
stags (three of them of fourteen points) while in 
full flight, the first being over 200 yards off/' 

The following are interesting detailsof the Duke's 
bag during the last year that Baillie-Grohman 
was his guest, and no doubt the figures are fairly 
typical of all the later years of his life : " August 
i6th to September rsth, in Thuringia, 82 stags, 18 
hinds; September aist to October 3ist, in Hinter- 



Riss, Tyrol, 48 stags and 149 chamois; November 
3rd to 7th, Wallersee in Upper Austria, 115 boars, 
and between 4 guns, 22 roebucks, 132 hares, 1,113 
pheasants, 2 woodcock, and 6 partridges ". 

He always spent the rutting season quite alone 
and so intensely fond of deer-stalking was he 
" that even during the very last season which he 
lived to see, he succeeded in killing several stags. 
He managed this by having himself drawn up in 
a sort of chair on wheels, before dawn of day, 
to the vicinity of the spot where the stag was 
calling, and doing the last bit of stalking on foot 
as best he could ". Less than an hour before the 
fatal attack of apoplexy, " his master hand had 
brought down two royals! " and the last words 
that he is reported to have uttered were : " Let 
the drive commence ! " 

The Imperial forest of Spala in Poland was 
formerly one of the best stocked forests in Europe, 
and the low and undulating nature of the country 
made the sport comparatively easy. The 
Emperor of Russia and his guests used to shoot 
over this ground once a year when both driving 
and stalking were employed. The following are 
the details of the bag for 1900, made between I3th 
and 27th September, though unfortunately the 
number of guns is not stated** 

Jean Stolxmann : in litt. nth December 



Stags killed by stalking 

Heads of 20 points ... i 

18 i 

16 8 

14 M ... 22 
12 ... 29 

10 ... 23 

o ,, I 

6 i 

86 Stags. 
Stags killed by driving 

Heads of 14 points ... 7 

12 ... 21 

10 ... 25 

8 6 

6 i 

4 M .. i 

Brockets ... ... i 

Abnormal heads ... 2 

64 Stags. 
Hinds killed by driving 20 

Total of Red Deer 170 

Roedeer ,.. ... 44 

Wild Boar 74 

Foxes, Hares, and 

Winged Game .,, 65 

Total of all game 353 



Some of the finest deer-stalking of modern times 
for both quality and quantity has been obtained 
at Munkacs in Hungary. This vast estate covers 
nearly 600 square miles, of which over half is 
forest. During the rutting season of 1894 or 1895 
Count Schonborn and his guests shot the follow- 
ing stags : 

One of 18 points, three of 16, nine of 14, six of 
12, six of 10, and three of 8 points.* On this same 
estate, according to E, von Dombrowski, a stag 
weighing 44 stone 4 Ibs. clean has been obtained. 

The annual yield of game of all sorts from 
certain of these vast Continental estates is enor- 
mous. In 1908 the total bag on the domain of the 
princely house of Schwarzenberg amounted to 
78,900 head. This huge total included 1,529 deer, 
84 fallow-deer, 48 chamois, 8 moufflon, 3,771 
pheasants, 151 wild geese, 5,872 duck, 152 snipe, 
23,921 hares. 1,428 rabbits, etc.f 

The bags obtained in Spain do not compare 
with those of central Europe, but it is worthy of 
note that in the Coto Donana preserve, during 
three and a half days 1 shooting in January, 1923, 
the guns (averaging twenty) accounted for 101 
head of big game, comprising 42 red stags, 17 
fallow deer, 39 wild boar, and 3 beasts of prey.J 

W A. B*i!Ue-Grohinan : " Sport in the Alp* " : 1896: p. 245, 
t H S. Gladstone : " Record Bag* and Shooting Records >r : 1921 : 

p. 116. 
: Rxtrmct from Spanish Newspaper, quoted in " The Field " : 




Red deer were far less plentiful in Scotland in 
the middle ages than they are to-day, yet great 
bags were sometimes made by the methods of 
hunting then employed. One, William Barclay, 
of the court of Queen Mary has left us an account 
of a great drive in 1564. Two thousand High- 
landers drove in the woods and hills of Atholl, 
Badenoch, Mar, and Murray, and two thousand 
red deer were brought within view of the Queen. 
The actual drive seems to have lasted for two 
months, but in a single day no less than 360 deer, 
5 wolves, and some roe-deer were killed,* and this 
may well be the greatest number of deer ever 
killed in a day in Scotland. 

Details of another Royal hunt in 1529 are given 
by Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, in "The 
Chronicles of Scotland ". On this occasion the 
Earl of A thole entertained King James V to three 
days' hunting, in the course of which 600 red deer 
together with roe-deer, wolves, foxes, etc., were 

At these great hunts the deer were mobbed by 
scores of men and dogs and all manner of 
weapons, including dirks and daggers, were used 
for their destruction. 

Quoted by J G. Millait in " The MaramaU of Great Britain ami 
Ireland " : 1906 : Vol. HI : p 114 : from " De Regno et Regali 
Protettate aavcrtoa Monarchotnachot ", which waa translated 
from the Latin by Pennant. 



Throughout the period of the cross-bow and 
long-bow, driving was the only method employed 
to kill deer, and even after the advent of fire-arms 
it continued to prevail until 1745. In modern 
times it is only at the end of the season and in the 
largest forests that it is practised. Mr. J. G. 
Millais gives the following particulars of a 
notable bag obtained by these means : " In the 
great extent of country formerly rented by the 
late Mr. Winans in Ross-shire, forty-six stags 
were shot by the tenant and his two sons in one 
day ".* 

A remarkable incident in connection with stalk- 
ing has been recorded by Mr. J. G. Millais f : On 
the 1 7th August, 1876, that noted shot, Mr. Walter 
Winans, killed n stags as the result of one stalk 
in the Danie Beat of Glen Strathfarrer, Inverness- 
shire, and, as Mr. Millais comments, not the least 
extraordinary part of the affair was, that there 
should have been eleven "shootable" beasts 
together in a party of fourteen stags. 

Another noteworthy feat of stalking concerns 
the great Horatio Ross and his sons, an account 
of which was contained in an article over the 
signature of " A. Ross " in the " Shooting Times 
and British Sportsman " for December 5th, 1925, 
a portion of which was quoted in " The Field *' 

" Tht Minima* ot Great Britain and Ireland " : 1906 : Vol. HI : 
f ibid. p. 133. 



of December 3ist, 1925. From this I take the 
following : " In the forest of Dibidale, and in that 
part of Glendibidale which has for 40 years been 
reverenced as the Sanctuary, Capt. Ross and his 
sons made some remarkable shots at stags, and 
on one occasion they had a stalk at a bunch of 
eight stags on the south side of the glen. The 
weapons used were double-barrelled muzzle- 
loading Purdeys, and, of course, they could not 
reload and fire again. They fired their eight 
shots, and actually killed the eight stags. In 
those days stags were fewer in number, but the 
heads were much better than now. I am sure 
that Capt. Ross's eldest son, Edward, was a better 
rifle shot even than his celebrated father. He 
killed deer with the muzzle-loader at distances 
that his father would never have thought of 
shooting at them, and he won the Queen's Prize 
at Wimbledon the first year it was competed for, 
with the Enfield. He was tenant of Lord Lovat's 
forest of Glendoe for many years, that beautiful 
Inverness-shire preserve now the property of Mr. 
Noble. He was tall and athletic, but not so 
strongly built as his father, and he was a com- 
paratively young man when he died ". 

Capt. Horatio Ross was bora in 1801 and lived 
till 1886 and he will always be remembered as 
one of the most remarkable shots with rifle, gun, 



or pistol that have ever lived. On his 8oth birth- 
day he shot two stags with a right and left, the 
latter being over 200 yards away,* and on Decem- 
ber 20th, 1881, when in his 8ist year, he fired 
twelve shots at a target with a 2-inch bull's-eye 
at 50 yards range. Seven of the shots were in the 
bull and the whole twelve were within a 3-inch 
circle. On May isth of the following year, 
shooting with a rook-rifle, made by Holland and 
Holland, he fired eighteen shots at 100 yards 
range, seventeen of which were within a circle 
5 inch in diameter. | Of his ability with the shot- 
gun two instances may be quoted: On the I2th 
August, 1892, he is said to have killed 83 grouse 
in 83 shots, shooting over dogs,J and in June, 
1828, shooting in a pigeon match he killed 79 
birds out of 80 at 30 yards rise, thereby winning 
the match and defeating such noted shots as 
Lord Kennedy, Lord Anson, the Hon. Henry 
Moreton, the Hon. Twisselton Fiennes, Mr. 
Osbaldeston, Mr. Delm6 Radcliffe, Capt. Delm6, 
Capt George Bentinck, Mr. Cruickshank, Mr. 
Anderson, Capt. Hall, Mr. Dare, Mr. Chinnery 
and Capt. Dickson. 

" Roat-ahtre Journal " : i6th September 1881 (quoted in " The 
Weld ", isth April 1926). 

f " The Field " : isth April 1926. 

* George Malcolm and Aymcr Maxwell : " Grouse and Grouse 
Moors " : 1910 : p. 971. 

{ " The Field M : atftt January 1916. 



The greatest number of stags ever killed in any 
Highland forest in a single season is, I think, 157, 
which number was obtained in the "Black- 
mount " as long ago as 1864,* but records of this 
nature are of no very great interest unless the 
quality of the heads and the weights are also 
known. In 1895, in Strathraick, Mr. John 
Williams killed 105 stags which included one 
thirteen pointer and ten royals,! whilst few, if 
any forests, show a higher standard of excellence 
than Langwell and Braemore, where the Duke of 
Portland has I think had fifty seasons. In 1925, 
107 stags from this ground averaged 15 stone 5lbs., 
the heaviest weighed 23 stone 4lbs., and there 
were four others over 20 stone; i thirteen pointer, 
5 royals, and 5 eleven pointers were among those 
killed and the best royal had the following dimen- 
sions : length 36 inches, beam 5$ inches, span 
3oJ inches. In 1929, 103 stags were killed with 
an average weight of 15 stone 7 Ibs. (clean); the 
heaviest was 24 stone iolbs., and no less than 
14 weighed over 20 stone. Included among the 
heads were I thirteen pointer and 5 royals, the 
best royal being 38! inches in length, and in 1930 
the four best heads were 2 fourteen pointers, a 

Jf. G. Millais : " The Hftnsmft!* of Great Briuin tod Ireland " : 
1906 : Vol. HI : p. 150. 

p. 131. 



thirteen pointer, and a royal, all of which 
measured from 30 to 36$ inches in length.* 

The question of who has shot the greatest num- 
ber of deer in Scotland I am unable to answer 
with absolute certainty, but I am inclined to think 
that Lord Desborough with a total of some 1,300 
stags has killed the mostf 

I quote the following from some interesting 
notes that Lord Desborough has kindly furnished 
me with : " I have done a certain amount of 
shooting big game in India, Africa, and the Rocky 
Mountains, and secured some good specimens. 
As regards deer-stalking in Scotland, it requires 
more art than shooting of wild game, as the less 
animals have seen of man the easier they are to 
get at. I have killed some thirteen hundred stags 
in Scotland, and have had glorious long days on 
the hill ; there is nothing so attractive as the wild 
conies of Scotland used to be, and when one was 
young one could not get tired ". 

In thirty-two seasons ending 1921, Mr. Sydney 
Loder killed 1,173 stags, all of which were killed 
by stalking^ His brother, Sir Edmund Loder, 
a noted shot and big game hunter was also an 

" The Field " : 8th January 1925 : ijth January 1930 : 4th April 

t Lord D. In W*. loth Jane 1931. 

? Sir Alfred B. Pens* : " Edmund Loder A Memoir " : 1923 : 
p, 86. 



enthusiastic deer-stalker. Between 1894 and 19x5 
his total amounted to 420, but this number in* 
eludes some chamois.* 

There are, I think, one or two other men now 
living who have killed over a thousand stags in 
Scotland but I am unable to give exact statistics. 


History affords ample proof that the transfer 
of wild animals to a new and strange environment 
is an experiment, the results of which are at all 
times uncertain. The liberation of non-indig- 
enous animals in unenclosed country is liable to 
disturb the balance of nature and to have far- 
reaching and unforeseen results. The acclimatiza- 
tion of Scottish and English red deer in New 
Zealand has proved no exception, though its 
problems are not to be compared with the diffi- 
culties arising out of the introduction of the rabbit 
in Australia. 

For many years the New Zealand herds of deer 
were allowed to increase unchecked. The best 
deer spread outward from the main herds which 
in time became composed of rubbish of both 
sexes. In 1923 it was estimated that the deer 
totalled 300,000 head and in the more settled 
parts of the Dominion they had become a menace 

Sir Alfred B. Pea* : " Bdmnnd Loder-A Memoir " ; 1923 : 
P a?4- 



to agriculture. In this year a permit was granted 
to Mr. J. G. Sutherland, a farmer of Pirinoa, 
Wairarapa, to shoot red deer, and he reported to 
the Wellington Acclimatization Society that he 
had shot 667 deer in five days, the largest number 
for one day being IQ4-* 

Since then, much has been done to control their 
numbers, but it is not so much with figures con- 
nected with the mere reduction of the herds that 
we are concerned as with the results obtained by 
the deer-stalker in the pursuit of the big heads. 
In spite of the deterioration caused by over- 
crowding, magnificent trophies are still to be 
obtained by penetrating into the rough and re- 
mote country in which the best deer are to be 

For quality and quantity it is probable that the 
best bag ever brought out of New Zealand as the 
result of one season's stalking was obtained by 
Lord and Lady Belper in 1925. This trip was 
made in the Otago country where the deer are 
descendants of Scottish stock obtained from 
Invermark and liberated in 1870. 

The following are the measurements of the 
seven magnificent heads obtained. Numbers 3 
and 7 were shot by Lady Belper and the re- 
mainder by Lord Belper f 

4I The Field " : 4th October 
f ibid 6th August 19*5. 



No. Points. Length. Beam. Span. Spread. 

i 8+8 48 6f 33! 41 

a 7+7 45* 6 31* 41 

3 7+6 44i 5 27 34* 

4 6+6 44* 6J 31$ 40$ 

5 6+6 40} 5i 28$ 35 

6 6+6 38$ 5* 33$ 

7 8+7 38 5* 28* 

No. i is certainly one of the finest, if not the 
finest, head ever killed in Otago, and the skull 
weighed 25 Ibs. before it was boiled. 




IN this chapter I refer only to the European roe 
(Capreolus caprea) and not to the larger 
Asiatic varieties of this animal. 

Taking Europe as a whole, there are probably 
seven roebucks killed to every one stag, and in 
an average year prior to the Great War nearly 
100,000 roe-deer were killed in Austria alone, 
whilst in Germany some 200,000 were shot 
annually. On the Continent the roe is held in far 
greater esteem than in Scotland and England, 
and to some well-known Continental sportsmen 
the roebuck has been their ruling passion. One 
has but to see some of the great private collec- 
tions to realise the amount of interest taken in this 
sporting little animal. The famous collection of 
Count Arco-Zinneberg contains over 2,300 
trophies, and nearly 300 is said to have been 
paid by this ardent collector for one small though 
curiously malformed head. 

The prizes awarded for roe heads at the Con- 
tinental exhibitions of trophies are among the 



most coveted honours to be won, and, at the 
International Shooting and Field Sports Exhibi- 
tion at Vienna in 1910, the collection prize for roe 
went to Prince Charles Trauttmansdorf who ex- 
hibited a group of 103 splendid heads from his 

In France, where the roe has for centuries been 
hunted by hounds, it is the sole quarry of many 
packs, and partly the quarry of some dozens of 
others. Taking Europe as a whole, however, it 
is probably true to say that the rifle accounts for 
considerably more than half the number killed. 
Stalking, or still-hunting, with the rifle, is usually 
regarded as the highest form of sport that the roe- 
deer affords, but in Scotland this method is only 
practised by a minority and they are more com- 
monly killed with shot guns at autumn and 
winter covert shoots. 

In Germany a popular way of shooting the 
buck is by calling him in the rutting season. The 
cry of the doe can be imitated by blowing in a 
particular manner on beech or hazel leaves and 
artificial calls are also manufactured. 

From a study of European records it is evident 
that the roe-deer is more plentiful to-day than it 
was in the middle-ages, and its horns show no 
such deterioration as has occurred in the case of 
the red deer. 



In detailing bags of roe it is essential to state how 
they were obtained : whether by driving or stalking 
and whether with rifle or shot gun; without such 
particulars the figures can be of but little interest. 

In spite of the fact that the roe-deer were not so 
plentiful in Europe in former times as they are 
to-day, there can be little doubt that the Elector 
John George II, who occupied the throne of 
Saxony from 1656 to 1680, killed more of these 
animals than any other man. According to 
reliable sources, of which I have given details in 
Capter XI, he killed no less than 16,864 roe, whilst 
his father Elector John George I, who reigned 
from 1611 to 1656, killed 11,489. 

Two historical records of considerable interest 
are mentioned by W. A. Baillie-Grohman in 
11 Sport in the Alps ". In 1545 Duke William IV 
of Bavaria killed 1,032 red deer, 535 wild boar, 
38 wolves and 224 roe-deer, whilst in 1583 the 
Elector of Brandenburg killed 1,295 red deer and 
249 roe-deer. In the course of a great deal of 
research undertaken by Baillie-Grohman in six- 
teen th-century annals, these two bags show the 
smallest preponderance of red deer over roe-deer. 
At this period ten red deer to one roe seems to 
have been the more usual proportion, with a 
gradual increase in the number of roes in the 
following two hundred years. 



Taming to more recent times, the largest bag 
obtained in a single day's driving of which I have 
been able to find reliable reference is mentioned 
by J. G. Millais. He does not mention the date 
or the number of guns, but he writes as follows* : 
"The late C Macpherson Grant, who had the 
autumn shooting of Beaufort (Scotland) for two 
years, told me that he and his party in one day 
in Farley Wood, Beaufort, killed 65 roe, besides 
13 hinds and 13 woodcock. Fifty have several 
times been killed in the same wood by the late 
Lord Lovat and his parties ". 

Particulars of some other big days at Farley 
appeared in " The Field " of the gth August, 1928. 
On the i8th November, 1887, the bag was 45, and 
on the 25th November, 1885, it amounted to 42. 

Between 1830 and 1849, 5& roe were killed in 
one day at Monromon Moor, near Kinnaird 
Castle, f and 42 is the largest number killed in a 
day in Darnaway Forest J 

It can be taken for granted that all these Scotch 
bags were obtained with shot guns. 

On the Continent the largest bag of which I 
have knowledge was obtained in the Imperial 
lorest of Bialovieja, where the Emperor of 

** Brttiab Dter nd tbtir Horn* " : 1897 : p. 174. 

t H. 8. Gladstone : " Record Bft and Shooting Record* " : 192* ; 

p, ia$. 

t Lord H. in Hit. 3rd December 1918. 
eja, Btetartge, or Bialowtna. 



Russia formerly held an annual shoot. In this 
vast preserve 325 roebucks and 3 does, together 
with a large bag of bison, elk, red deer, wild boar, 
etc., were killed between August 3ist and Septem- 
ber I2th, 1900. As the full details of this enormous 
bag of big game are given in the chapter devoted 
to the European bison it is unnecessary to repeat 
them here. 

In Count Joseph Potocki's forest of Schepe- 
towka, Volhynia, ten rifles shot 77 roebucks and 
a hundred odd wild boar in four days' shooting 
in 1912.* 

In Belgium, roe are fairly plentiful and they 
are mostly killed in battues. On the estate of 
Baron de Woot de Jane, during two days' 
driving, 1,800 head of game, which included 29 
roe-deer, were killed, f 

In the Ardennes, where roe and wild boar are 
the principal game animals, Mr. H. J. Elwes has 
recorded that he has known 28 roe and n pigs 
killed in one day's driving.^ Elwes was a mem- 
ber of the Soci6t6 de Bouillon, an old-established 
shooting syndicate. He does not mention the 
number of guns that accounted for this particular 
bag, but he states that the guns usually totalled 
ten or twelve. 

Count Roman Potocki : in Hit. i$h April 
t Henri Qtrerwn : " Sport in Europe " : 1901 : p. 90. 
I " Memories of Travel, Sport, tod Natural History " : 1990 : 
P* Mi- 


With regard to stalking with the rifle, the 
record bag appears to have been made in 
Hungary, where His Imperial and Royal High- 
ness the Archduke Francis Ferdinand shot in the 
spring of 1899, 66 selected old bucks in three days 
on the estate of Count Tassilo Festetics.* 

A notable day's sport was obtained by the 
Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, who stalked and 
shot 18 roe in one morning at Keszthely.f and one 
day prior to the Great War, on the estates of 
Count Z. Tarnowski, at Dzikow, Polish Selicia, 
five rifles, shooting in the morning and evening, 
accounted for no less than 52 bucks.J 

Mr. J. G. Millais has given details in connection 
with a feat of roe-deer shooting which are extra- 
ordinary for more reasons than one; he says : 
" Roe exist in very large numbers on some of the 
islands of the Danube, for at the Vienna 
Exhibition of 1910 we were afforded the unique 
exhibition of 113 roebuck heads shot in nine days 
by a sportsman who not only showed the results 
of his prowess, but himself, suitably attired in 

hunting costume and clasping his rifle 

Most of these heads were killed from a canoe 

Geta Count S**cbnyi : " Sport in Europe " : 1901 : p. 6r, 

t Baron Donald Schonberg : " Sport in Bnrope " : 1901 : p. i$6. 

* Count Roman Potocki : in Hit, I5tb April 1929. 

$ " The Can at Home and Abroad " : Vol. Ill : 19x4 : p. 314. 



propelled by a keeper, whilst the shooter sat in 
the bows and picked off the best bucks as they 
fed on the water edge at morn or eve ". 

In the south of Sweden, where some of the 
finest heads have been obtained, roe-deer were 
formally killed at battues together with hares, 
foxes, etc., but following the introduction of 
pheasants and rabbits they have, since the begin- 
ning of the present century, been more usually 
killed by stalking them with the rifle. By this 
method, Count Stig Thott informs me that he has 
shot as many as 12 in a single day's stalking. 

A remarkable incident is mentioned in "The 
Badminton Magazine ", Vol. XXI, September, 
I 95' P- 244' anc * quoted by Mr. Hugh S. Glad- 
stone in " Record Bags and Shooting Records " 
(1922). From the latter work I take the follow- 
ing : " It is recorded that at a battue at the 
Gohrde, not far from Hamburg, on I4th January, 
1845, King Ernst August of Germany shot four 
roe-deer at one shot : doubtless with a bullet but 
still surely ' some record ' ". 




the one notable exception to which I shall 
presently refer, the hunters of the middle 
ages paid little attention to the pursuit of the 
chamois. To this deeply superstitious race of 
people all the dangers of Alpine life were 
attributed to occult powers. Avalanche, flood, 
lightning, and mist were alike regarded as the 
manifestations of the various spirits of the moun- 
tains, the fear of which undoubtedly retarded 
both sport and exploration throughout the great 
mountain chain which is the chamois' home. To 
such as followed it, the sport must have been of 
a most exacting nature, since to kill a chamois 
with no other weapon than a 9 or 10 foot javelin 
required climbing powers, and a knowledge of 
the ground and game, of which the modern 
Nimrod might well be proud. The gradual im- 
provement in early firearms had but little effect 
on the sport of chamois hunting, since this 
coincided with the luxury and pageant loving 



ages of the i?th and i8th centuries, when an 
amusement of so stern a nature made but little 
appeal The chase of the chamois, as it is under- 
stood to-day, may be said to date from the begin- 
ning of the igth century, when the example of 
the Archduke John of Austria in stalking chamois 
was quickly followed by the upper classes. Since 
that time, chamois shooting, whether by stalking 
or driving, has maintained its position as one of 
the finest forms of sport that Europe offers. 

The largest number of chamois ever killed in 
one day which I can find recorded is 183, and 
this enormous bag was obtained before the days 
of firearms. It was the result of a great drive 
held by the Emperor Maximilian (1459-1519) in 
the Schmirn mountains.* On such an occasion 
as this the inhabitants of all the nearest villages 
were commanded to act as beaters and the 
chamois were killed with javelins at an average 
range of perhaps 25 to 30 yards. 

Before turning to more recent records a few 
words must be said concerning the Emperor 
Maximilian of Austria, who was one of the most 
adventurous, sport-loving and romantic figures of 
European history, and whose love of chamois 
hunting seems to have exceeded that of any 
other sport. 

*" Sport in the Alps " : p. la (qtoted from " Weittkmajg "). 




Our present knowledge of this great hunter is 
based on two printed works, namely, ' 'Weiss- 
kunig " and " Theuerdank ", and on two manu- 
scripts, one of which is preserved in the Imperial 
Library in Vienna and the other in the Royal 
Library in Brussels. All four are considered to 
have been written or dictated by the Emperor. 
Both of the first-named works have been re- 
printed, but they are practically unknown in this 
country, and the best known references to the 
Emperor in the English language are to be found 
in the writings of VV. A. Baillie-Grohman. From 
this great authority's " Sport in the AJps " I take 
the following extracts: Speaking of tlis skill with 
the long-bow, he says that he " was one of the few 
foreigners who proved himself equal to British 
archers in the handling of the long-bow, in the 
management of which the English, since the time 
of Edward III, were acknowledged by all nations 
to have been far and away the most skilled. 
Such strength had he in his arms, that as he him- 
self relates in the first-named work (Weisskunig), 
he once shot a wooden arrow, on which there was 
no iron whatever, through a plank of very hard 
larch wood 3 inches thick ". After referring at 
some length to the books and manuscripts I have 
already mentioned, he goes on to say : " These 


four works give one a fairly accurate idea of the 
manner in which the chase of the chamois was 
conducted by Maximilian, while some additional 
notes found in the archives at Innsbruck, the 
capital of the country, in which lay his favourite 
hunting-grounds, no less than some of his anus 
preserved in the Imperial Museum in Vienna, 
enable one to picture to oneself the personality of 
this bold climber and explorer of the mountain 
wilds". He was one of the last sportsmen of 
great position who ordinarily used the cross-bow 
and " for big game, short arrows with massive 
iron points were used, while for small game lead 
bullets were preferred. Though, as a rule, 
different cross-bows were used for arrows and 
bullets, there were such that could be converted 
so as to use either. Maximilian must have been 
an excellent shot with this arm, for he shot ducks 
as they rose from the water, killing on one occa- 
sion 100 ducks with 104 shots. Once he killed 26 
hares, without missing once, with one and the same 
arrow, though his biography does not mention 
how many of them were running shots. In 
winter, on account of great cold rendering steel 
dangerously brittle, Maximilian tells his successor 
he is to use in the chase of the chamois a cross- 
bow with a bow made of horn. The 'hand- 
gonne' or fire-tube, as the first exceedingly 



primitive fire-arm used in the chase was called, 
was never used by the Emperor for chamois- 
hunting In ' Weisskunig ' there is narrated 

the following incident, proving the superiority of 
the cross-bow, when in such skilled hands as 
those of Maximilian, over the hand-gonne of his 
day. Maximilian, accompanied by one Yorg 
Purgkhardt, who is described as a man most 
skilled in the use of the fire-tube, went out 
chamois shooting. Coming upon a chamois 
standing high over their heads on a rock, the 
Emperor commanded Yorg to shoot the buck 
with his fire-tube, but the latter declared that the 
chamois was much too high up, and could not be 
reached by his bullet. Whereupon Maximilian, 
taking his cross-bow, said, ' Look-out, I shall kill 
that buck with my steel cross-bow/ and really 
brought him down the very first shot, the distance 
being 100 klafter, or over 200 yards. 

" But the Emperor's favourite manner of hunt- 
ing the chamois was with the javelin, which, of 
course, was far more difficult than with the cross- 
bow, for to be successful it was necessary to get 
to dose quarters and tread the dangerous paths 
and narrow ledges to which the game, when 
pressed, always takes refuge. This sporting spirit 
of desiring to come to close quarters with his 
game distinguished Maximilian in a high degree. 



The more dangerous the foe, the greater the zest 
with which this courageous sportsman entered the 
fray. Hand-to-hand personal encounters, in 
which the skill, strength, or endurance of the 
hunter vanquished the ferociousness or fleetness 
of foot of the hunted beast, were the joy of his 
life. Maximilian would journey afar to meet 
single-handed a great bear or monster boar that 
had been marked to cover for him. And what 
enormous sizes those beasts then still attained we 
know from game registers, that give their weights 
as up to 900 and 800 Ibs. respectively." 

" These beasts he would tackle on foot single- 
handed in their lair, armed either with the short 
hunting spear, with which, gripped firmly in both 
hands, the charge of the beast was received, or 
with his hunting sword or hanger." .... " With 
either in his hand he seems to have feared 
no beast, and his adventures were of the most 
thrilling kind. When on horseback in pursuit 
of a big stag he would, when the cornered beast 
turned and charged, receive the infuriated beast 
at the point of the latter arm. But of all these 
various modes of pursuing game that resulted 
in dangerous hand-to-hand combats with the 
fiercest beasts of prey, none, according to his own 
accounts, brought him so often into deadly peril 
as the chamois chase with the javelin, or Schaft 



as was its technical term. Swiftly moving 
avalanches, showers of stones, set in motion by 
beaters or by the game itself, shot chamois 
tumbling down upon the sportsmen from heights 
above, rocks giving way, the snapping of his 
alpenstock, the giving way in a most dangerous 
place of five or six spikes of his crampon, slipping 
on narrow ledges and being saved from instant 
death by a quick leap into the top of a handy tree 
growing below, or, on another similar occasion, 
by clinging with one hand to a point of rock, are, 
one and all, adventures narrated by the 
Emperor " " Maximilian's sporting estab- 
lishment was very large, consisting of Masters of 
the Chase, Master of the Forest, keepers and 
kennelmen by the hundred, for he had separate 
staffs in most of the Austrian provinces, and in his 
kennels were no fewer than 1,500 hounds. The 
latter were, however, chiefly used when other 
royal guests were present, to whom the hardships 
of stalking were less welcome than they were to 
Maximilian himself ". 

I have referred earlier in the chapter to the great 
drive he held in which no less than 183 chamois 
were accounted for in a single day's sport, and 
there can be no doubt that he fully deserved to 
be acknowledged in the manner that he was as 
the Master of the Masters of the Chase. 


In modern times all the largest bags have, of 
course, been made by driving, and the record 
collective bag appears to have been obtained in 
the Zillerthal Alps, where, in the famous shoot of 
Prince Auersperg, 94 chamois were shot in one 
drive on August 3ist, 1892, and the result of six 
days' driving was a total of 222 to five guns, only 
bucks and barren does being killed.* The vast 
preserve where this great bag was made was 
divided by its natural features into three divisions, 
each of which was left undisturbed for two years 
in succession. 

Another bag of great magnitude was made in 
September, 1912, at a Royal shoot in the Picos de 
Europa in Spain. On the first day there were 
eleven guns and 81 chamois were killed, f 

In 1897, during a day's driving on Mount 
Poucet, King Humbert of Italy shot 49 chamois 
out of a total bag of 694 and this is the largest 
individual bag that I have found recorded, 
though according to Count Scheibler, His 
Majesty averaged 50 chamois a day during his 
annual visits to the Royal preserve in Val del 
Gesso. King Humbert was a first-rate shot his 

Randolph L Hodgson : " Big Game Shooting " (The " Country 
Ufe Library of Sport) : 1905 : Vol. I : p. 137. 

t Abel Chapman : M The Gun at Home and Abroad " : Vol. Ill : 
1914 : p. 3*> 

$ " The Field " : nth September 1807 



favourite weapon being a .450 Express by 
Holland and Holland. 

I cannot say with certainty who has shot the 
greatest number of chamois during a lifetime, 
but this record probably belongs to the Royal 
sportsman just mentioned, or to Duke Ernest II 
of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, whose total was 2,000.* 
According to W. A. Baillie-Grohman the Duke's 
best season yielded 149, but it should be remem- 
bered that in his early days he shot his chamois 
by stalking, and it was only with advancing years 
that he took to driving. I have referred to his 
wonderful ability with the rifle in Chapter XI, 
and had he gone in for driving earlier his bag of 
chamois would have been even larger than it was. 

Very few Englishmen have had an extensive 
experience of chamois shooting. Baillie-Grohman 
enjoyed the sport in many of the finest preserves 
in Europe, and Sir Edmund Loder rented good 
chamois ground from 1895 to 1897 and from 1905 
to 1907, but to the great majority it is a little 
known sport. 

Chamois hunting is also to be obtained in the 
Pyrenees, in Greece, and in the Caucasus, but I 
can find no record of any very large bags having 
been made in these countries. 

W A, Bftinte-GrotiroAn : " Sport in tb* Alp* " : 1896 : p fcr 




European bison or zubr is sometimes 
referred to as the aurochs, though this name 
properly belongs to the urus, or wild ox, which 
has been extinct in Europe for several hundred 

The European bison (Bos bonassus) is a 
creature of huge bulk and sometimes attains a 
height of over six feet at the shoulder. The enor- 
mous development of the fore-quarters appears to 
be exaggerated by the mass of brown hair with 
which the back of the head, neck, shoulders, and 
chest are covered, giving the animal a look of 
innate wildness. 

Essentially forest-loving creatures, they are 
generally shy and retiring, though, according to 
Lydekker, an old bull has been known to take 
possession of a road in Lithuania and to challenge 
all comers. 

Formerly abundant over a large area of 
Europe their range at the beginning of the present 
century was confined to Lithuania, where they 



were strictly preserved in the Imperial forest of 
Bielovfige,* to the Kouban district of the 
Caucasus, and to a small herd in Silesia on the 
property of the Prince of Pless, Political troubles, 
uprisings, and disturbances of a like nature have 
always proved detrimental to the bison, as such 
events have invariably resulted in poaching to a 
greater or less extent, and as the cows are only 
believed to calve once in three years, a strict 
measure of protection is essential to the mainte- 
nance of their numbers. 

The bison formerly extended into Siberia, and 
E, Demidoff (Prince San Donato), in an interest- 
ing contribution to " Sport in Europe ", mentions 
the report of a native hunter having seen three 
animals in the woods which he recognized as 
bison on being shown the illustration of one in a 
book of natural history. This cannot, of course, 
be accepted as evidence that they exist there, but 
it must be within the bounds of possibility that 
some herds still live in certain of the vast and un- 
explored forest areas of that little known country. 

According to Mr. F. A. Lucas, the bison was 
common in Poland up to 1500, " where it was 
looked upon as royal game, and hunted in right 
royal manner by the King and nobility, as many 
as two thousand or three thousand beaters being 

Bielovtge, BUlovieja or BUlowicr* 


employed to drive the game. In 1534 the animal 
was still so numerous in the vicinity of Girgau, 
Transylvania, that peasants passing through the 
woods were occasionally trampled to death by 
startled bison ". It is probable therefore that 
some very large bags were made at this period, 
but the largest I can find recorded is of consider- 
ably later date. According to the same authority 
a grand hunt was organized by the Polish King, 
Augustus III, in 1752, when 60 bison were killed 
in a single day,* 

By 1815 the Lithuanian herd was estimated to 
contain no more than 300 head, but careful pro- 
tection increased it to 700 by 1830, though a local 
revolt in the following year reduced its numbers 
to 637, An official enumeration took place at the 
end of each decade and by 1860 the total was 
1,700. During the Polish uprising of 1863, how- 
ever, they were killed in such numbers that the 
next official count amounted to only 847, and by 
1880 the herd had waned to 600. I do not know 
at what date this great forest of Bielovfige was 
enclosed, but I believe it was in this state during 
the reign of the late Czar. Once a year the 
Emperor and his guests shot over a portion of the 
ground and some enormous bags of big game 
were obtained. 

d bv K Lydekker in " The Royal N*tr*i Hiatory " 
Vol. 1 : p. 190. 



The following is a complete list of the game 
killed between August 3ist and September rath, 

Bison ... 42 
Elk . . . 36 

Red Deer (Stags) . 53 
Deer ( ? Hinds) . 26 
Roe-deer (Bucks) . 325 
(Does) . 3 
Wild Boar . , 138 
Foxes . . . 51 
Winged Game . n 

Total . . 685 

The number of rifles that accounted for this 
vast total is not stated, but Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Altembourg killed the most, his figures being as 
follows: 12 bison, 37 stags, 39 roebucks, 16 other 
deer, 24 wild boar, 10 foxes, and i woodcock.* 

I do not know whether the 42 bison in this bag 
is the absolute record for modern times, as these 
are the only exact figures that I have been able 
to obtain, but if they have been exceeded, it 
would not have been by very many, as according 
to E. Demidoff (Prince San Donato) thirty to forty 
was the average number shot. 

Jean StoiUai*aii : in Wlf. i rth December 1900. 


Very few Englishmen ever had the opportunity 
of shooting in these wonderful preserves. Major 
Algernon Heber Percy shot a bull and a cow 
bison, and in 1898 Mr. E. N. Buxton obtained 
some splendid photographs of bison, but I do not 
know whether he shot any specimens. 

Of the few that existed in the Caucasus, only 
three were allowed to be shot annually, this being 
the self-imposed limit of the Grand Duke Serge 
whose Kouban preserves constituted their only 
stronghold. So far as I know the only English- 
man who ever shot a bison in the Caucasus was 
St. George Littledale, who was virtually the dis- 
coverer of these animals in that country, the 
Kouban preserve being established at a later date. 


As a hunter of big game in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, the name of Littledale must surely stand 
alone. His success in this sphere has never I 
think been equalled, most certainly never sur- 
passed. During the course of his long and 
adventurous life he penetrated into many of the 
most inacessible regions, and obtained some of 
the rarest trophies that have ever fallen to the 
rifle of a hunter. In 1893 he carried out an 
important journey of exploration in which he 



crossed Asia from the Caspian to Peking. During 
this trip he mapped a large territory between 
Lob Nor and Koko Nor and in the regions of 
the Upper Hoangho, whilst in the two following 
years he accomplished the most difficult feat of 
crossing Tibet, but it is of his achievements as a 
hunter that we are here concerned. 

It was in 1891 that he shot the two European 
bison (male and female) which he presented to 
the Natural History Museum, London, and so far 
as I know he still remains the only Englishman 
who has ever shot these rare beasts in the 
Caucasus, and at that time they lived in a per- 
fectly wild and unprotected state. A long hunt 
in the previous year had proved fruitless, so that 
his success, when it came, had been well earned. 
It speaks volumes for his forbearance that he 
refrained from shooting a third and finer speci- 
men. I quote his own words with regard to this 
incident* : " Some weeks after that, I found my- 
self face to face with a grand old bull, bigger than 
my first victim. We were hidden in the bush and 
he stood in the open wood, and grand indeed he 
looked I laid my rifle down, for the temptation 
was great, and I would not have slain him for 
i,ooa I took off my cap to him out of respect 
for a noble representative of a nearly extinct 

Badminton Library : " Big Gftmc Shooting " : Vol. U 


species; I had got what I wanted, and mine 
should not be the hand to hurry further the exter- 
mination of a fading race for mere wanton sport". 
It would be hard to find a better example of true 
sportsmanship than that. As the two specimens 
he had already shot were destined for the 
National Collection the temptation to secure the 
third for himself must have been very great, but 
he yielded not, and those few lines from his pen 
are, I think, one of the finest passages in the whole 
literature of big game. 

Magnificent trophies are to be won in the 
Caucasus, but it is a hard and difficult country 
where every shot has to be worked for. Little- 
dale's success in this country was wonderful. On 
one occasion he obtained four splendid stags at 
one stalk. On this particular day he was lying 
on a ridge near the summit of the divide and 
within his view were " a dozen old male tur in 
an unstalkable position, two bears whose skins 
(it being August) were not worth having, a 
chamois scorned as small game, and the stags 
which he ultimately bagged ".* In 1887 his bag 
in the Caucasus amounted to 7 ollen or red deer 
stags, 7 ibex, n chamois, together with some 
bears and wild boar. 

His best stag's head, and it is the record 

* Bftdminton Library : " Big Game Shooting " : Vol. II 



with the exception of one owned by Mr, H. O, 
Whittal, has the following measurements: 
Length on outside curve, 47 J in.; circumference, 
7j in.; tip to tip, 33$ in.; widest inside, 43 J in.; 
spread, 54! in.; points, 10+9. 

In 1874 he was in the Rocky Mountains, and in 
two months' shooting he secured no less than 13 
mountain sheep and some wapiti,* and at other 
times he visited Alaska, Colorado and Newfound- 

In 1875 Littledale met Sir Edmund Loder in 
India which resulted in a life-long friendship 
between them. As an immediate result of this 
chance meeting they decided to visit the 
Neilgheny Hills together, and in fifteen days' 
shooting, Littledale's bag amounted to 7 ibex, 
2 sambur stags and i hind.f 

He visited the Pamirs of central Asia in 1888 
when he shot 17 ovis poll, and again in 1890. 
A 62$ in. head that he got was sent to Her 
Imperial Majesty the Czarevna, she having ex- 
pressed a wish to have one of his trophies.! 

One of the results of his journey across Tibet 
was the obtaining of three specimens of the wild 
camel of which he brought home all the skins and 
skulls and one complete skeleton. 

Edmund Loder " by Sir Alfred R P***e : 1915 : p 174. 
f ibid. p. 177. 
~ Ubrmry : " Big Game Shooting " : Vol. 0, 


Perhaps the most noteworthy trophy that 
Littledale ever obtained is the great Siberian 
argali head that he shot in the Altai. This 
magnificent trophy, which is the largest ever 
recorded by Rowland Ward, measures 62^ ins. 
on the front curve and IQ| ins. in circumference. 
Another great head that he obtained is that of an 
Asiatic ibex in the possession of H.M. the King. 
The measurements are: Length, 54 ins.; circum- 
ference, lof ins.; tip to tip, 45 ins. At one time 
and another he also obtained outstanding trophies 
of the following: Carpathian stag, American 
wapiti, Asiatic wapiti, Newfoundland caribou, 
prongbuck, Siberian roebuck, Mongolian gazelle, 
chamois, Cashmere serow, Rocky Mountain goat, 
Caucasian ibex, Caucasian bharal, Palla's bharal, 
Ladak bharal, Colorado bighorn, Littledale's 
argali, Kobet Dagh urial, American bison, etc. 

Littledale's skill with the rifle was of the very 
highest order. In his early days he used a 
double .500 Express, but with the advent of the 
small-bore high-velocity rifles he took to using 
the .256 Mannlicher, and he was probably one of 
the first three Englishmen to adopt this rifle for 
sporting purposes, the other two being Sir 
Edmund Loder and Sir Alfred Pease. 

With one of these rifles, sighted and stocked by 
Gibbs of Bristol, which he was trying in 1897, 



he made a wonderful group. The clip of five 
shots was fired at 100 yards range and the 
group, which was in the dead centre of the 
target, is completely hidden if covered by a six- 
penny-piece. This classic target was reproduced 
in " The Book of the Rifle " and in " The Field " 
of May 23rd, 1931. 

I had hoped to obtain some additional and first- 
hand information concerning the career of this 
great hunter and explorer, but before I was 
able to do so I learnt of his death. During his 
lifetime he gave many valuable specimens to the 
Natural History Museum, and now that he has 
left us he has bequeathed to the Nation all that is 
best in his magnificent collection of trophies. 




principal homes of the Elk in Europe 
are in Scandinavia, East Prussia, Poland, 
Lithuania, parts of Russia and eastwards into 
subarctic portions of Siberia where its extreme 
limits are not definitely known. Being essentially 
a forest animal its northern extension is governed 
by the presence of trees. 

On some of the immense Continental estates 
belonging to crown or nobility, where the preser- 
vation of game is carried to a high degree, driving 
on a large scale is practised, and, in a small way, 
it is sometimes attempted in Norway by employ- 
ing beaters to move the elk out of deep gorges 
or very thick woodlands towards the rifle or 
rifles. The more usual method of hunting the elk 
in Norway, however, is with the aid of an elk- 
dog in leash, patiently working up and across the 
wind to enable the dog to scent either the beast 
itself or its fresh spoor. In Sweden the dog is 
allowed to range loose in order that it may bring 



the elk to bay or otherwise impede it till the 
hunter can get up and obtain a shot. In Russia, 
driving, tracking on snow-shoes, and calling the 
elk during the rutting time are methods com- 
monly adopted. 

A bull elk of the first class may stand six feet 
or over at the withers, and heads with a span of 
over 50 inches are recorded. 

The largest bags have naturally been obtained 
where the game is strictly preserved and driving 
is practised. 

So far as I can ascertain the record bag of elk 
for a single day's driving was made in Sweden. 
I am greatly indebted to the authorities of the 
Royal Hunt for their courtesy in furnishing me 
with, and allowing me to publish, details of the 
bags which have been obtained at the Royal elk- 
shooting parties on Hunneberg and Halleberg. 

" At a shooting party in 1885, in which the 
Prince of Wales took part, 73 elk were killed in 
one day by about 30 rifles/' 

" The mountains of Halleberg and Hunneberg 
are situated on the south shore of Lake Wenern 
in Westergotland. The surface of this Royal 
preserve is about 14,000 acres. The shooting 
parties lasting two days take place every second 
year and the number of rifles is about 15. The 



following bags have been obtained in the last 
ten years " : 

1921: 14 bulls, ii cows, total 25 elk. 
1924: 33 bulls, 10 cows, 43 elk. 
1926: 20 bulls, 15 cows, 35 elk. 
1928: 14 bulls, 25 cows, 39 elk. 
(This year bulls were not allowed to be 

shot in three drives.) 
1930: 24 bulls, 14 cows, total 38 elk. 

Another great day's shooting over this same 
ground occurred in September, 1888, details of 
which are given in the Badminton Library (Big 
Game Shooting: 1894: Vol. II: p. 136). The 
number of rifles is, unfortunately, not stated, but 
the day's sport was made up of three drives, the 
results of which were as follows : 

ist Drive . . . 24 elk. 

2nd 28 elk (bulls only). 

3rd ... 14 elk. 

Total 66 elk. 

Driving on a vast scale has been practised in 
Sweden for very many years, and on such great 
occasions as those mentioned above, several 
hundred beaters would form an immense cordon 
which would never be relaxed night or day. An 



enormous area of forest would thus be covered, 
the elk being moved gradually towards the posi- 
tions where the guns were stationed. 

Some splendid elk heads have been obtained in 
Sweden and their average size is rather larger 
than Norwegian heads. 

In the great forest of Bialovieja, the Imperial 
preserve of the Emperor of Russia, great bags of 
elk and other game were made on the occasions 
of his annual shoot. I have already given in 
another chapter the details of the bag for 1900, 
made between the 3ist August and lath Septem- 
ber, but I again give it in full owing to its great 
magnitude and variety. The total head of game 
killed is as follows* : 

Elk ... 36 

Bison ... 42 

Red Deer (Stags) . 53 

Deer ( ? Hinds) . 26 

Roe-deer (Bucks) . 325 

(Does) . 3 

Wild Boar . . 138 

Foxes ... 51 

Winged Game . n 

Total . . 685 

Jean Stotxramnn : In fill, nth December 1900, 



The Polish and Lithuanian elk heads are better 
than those from Norway. One shot by Count 
Constantin Potocki in the Pinsk Marshes has a 
span of over 52 inches and a still finer one was 
formerly in the possession of the Czar. Another 
great head was shot during the War in this same 
locality, where elk still exist in fair numbers. 

In Norway, driving on a large scale never 
seems to have been attempted, tracking with the 
leash-dog or " bind-hund " being the usual 
method employed, though L. Lloyd in "Field 
Sports of the North of Europe" mentions an 
early record of elk being shot with the aid of 
pointers. His statement is as follows: "Mr. 
Grieff speaks of killing the elk to pointers: he 
says, that about the year 1790, when he was 
residing in Westmanland, where those animals 
were at that time very numerous, he shot no fewer 
than eleven in the course of one season, to a 
favourite dog of his, called Caresse ". 

Few, if any, non-resident sportsmen had a 
more extensive knowledge of sport in Scandi- 
navia than Sir Henry Pottinger, and in his inter- 
esting book " Flood, Fell and Forest ", published 
in 1905, he states that in his best season he shot 
8 bull elk and i cow. Mr. H. J. Elwes shot 7 bull 
elk in twenty days' hunting in September, 1895, 
in the district of Mo, in the North Trondhjem 



amt,* and in 1899 in Upper Namdalen, Mr. J, G* 
Millais shot 5 bull elk and a large bear during the 
course of a three weeks' huntf 

Another very successful hunter in Norway is 
Mr. G. J. van Heek, Jr., of Enschede, Holland, 
who has kindly supplied me with some informa- 
tion concerning the best heads he has shot.} On 
12th September, 1913, at Slipern, Trondhjem 
Peninsular, he shot two bulls with horns having 
the following dimensions : 

No. I. No. II. 

Greatest spread 48} ins. 33 J ins. 

Breadth of palm ... 8$ ins. 4! ins. 

Circumference of burr . . . lof ins. 7$ ins. 

Circumference of beam ... 6} ins. 5$ ins. 
(Measured two inches 
above base of burr.) 

Points 10+9 5 + 5 

In September, 1922, at Rocknedalen, Snaassen, 
he obtained two other first-class trophies, the 
dimensions of which I am able to give. No. I 
was shot on the 22nd September, and No, II on 
the i6th September. 

* H. J. Blwt* : "Memoir* of Travel, Sport, and Natural HUtory" 

*W P* '55* 

f Supplement to " Gxmtry Life " : joth July 1910. 
: in fttl. aaad Ji? 1931 



No. I. No, II. 

Greatest spread 40$ ins, 40 ins. 

Breadth of palm ... 4$ ins. 7| ins. 

Circumference of burr ... logins. 9 ins. 

Circumference of beam ... 6f ins. 6J ins. 
(Measured two inches 
above base of burr.) 

Points 5+6 6+7 

Mr. van Heek has also hunted moose in 
Canada with notable success. On 6th October, 
1925, he obtained a magnificent head in New- 
Brunswick with a spread of 6iJ inches an ex- 
ceptional measurement for that country. 





reindeer are to be found nearly as far 
north as the extreme limits of land, while 
they extend from Scandinavia in the west to 
Eastern Siberia, but their pursuit as a separate 
sport is practically confined to certain areas 
among the high fjelds of Norway, with a mean 
elevation of some 4,000 feet. The number of wild 
reindeer in Norway has fluctuated greatly from 
time to time, but the introduction of cheap maga- 
zine rifles and the facility with which they could 
be procured by the native hunters was the 
biggest factor in the reduction of their numbers. 
Legislation did something to restore the herds, 
but poaching in those desolate regions has usually 
been prevalent 

Stalking is practically the only accepted method 
of hunting these animals, though E. Demidoff 
(Prince San Donate) mentions shooting one at a 
drive in Central Ural. 



Mr* Abel Chapman has given us some excellent 
descriptions of reindeer stalking at its best in his 
fine, though now scarce, book ' Wild Norway ". 

The largest bags of reindeer have I think been 
made by some of the native hunters and not by 
visiting sportsmen. There does not appear to be 
much reliable data concerning what the former 
actually achieved, but the Rev. M. R. Barnard 
in his book, " Sport in Norway ", 1864, refers to 
this subject on page 97, and the details which were 
given to him, and which he quotes, are the largest 
bags I can find recorded. From this book I take 
the following: " B. tells me of a first-rate Vaage 
hunter who once killed 13 in a year, and he says 
that the great man of all, ' Old Joe ', who is I 
suppose, par excellence, the ' mighty hunter ' of 
Norway, who has been at it without cessation for 
fifty years, living almost all his life up in the high 
fjelds amongst the deer, has slain in his half- 
century between 500 and 600 ". 

During Mr. Abel Chapman's last stalking 
season in Norway, a native hunter informed him 
that he had killed 33 deer the previous season 
and that he had commenced the present one with 
a bag of eleven out of one herd.* 

Turning to the results of stalking, in which only 
really shootable beasts are killed, one of the most 

Abet Chapman : " Big Gam* Shooting " (The " Country Life " 
Library of Sport) : Vol. X : 1905 : p. no. 


successful hunts of more receot years was made 
by Captain P. B. Vanderbyl in 1907. This trip 
followed a five years 1 close season and reindeer 
arere fairly numerous. Hunting from Lyseheien, 
Captain Vanderbyl shot eight stags, and F, C 
Selous, who was his guest for part of the time, 
got five in seven days' hunting.* 


It seems certain that the European ibex would 
have ceased to exist in the Alps but for the inter- 
vention of King Victor Emanuel of Italy, in 1856. 
The superstitions of the middle-ages and later 
were responsible for the almost complete exter- 
mination of these animals. Their horns had a 
very considerable value, being made into goblets 
which were supposed to betray the presence of 
certain poisons, while various portions of the 
carcass were believed to possess healing powers 
for all manner of complaints; thus every moun- 
taineer's hand was turned against them. 

About 1821 the naturalist Zumstein prevailed 
upon the Piedmont Government to establish strict 
laws for the protection of the small band that 
existed in the Graian Alps, but this seems to have 
done little more than to delay the rate of decrease. 

J> G. Millatt : " The Life of F C. 8ekwi " 



In 1856, however, King Victor Emanuel created 
the preserve on both sides of the Dora Baltea 
which included their former reservation. The 
ibex thus became Royal game, and a staff of fifty- 
five keepers kept watch and ward over their 
numbers to such purpose that by 1877 they had 
increased to between 500 and 1,000 head, this in 
spite of the fact that the King shot on an average 
nearly fifty a year. 

The Spanish ibex, which is a separate species, 
is perhaps the finest game beast to be found in 
Spain. Living among the highest peaks they 
afford splendid sport either by stalking or 

It is in the Royal preserves of the Dora Baltea 
in the Piedmont Alps that the largest bags of ibex 
have been made. Between 1856 and 1877 King 
Victor Emanuel was in the habit of visiting this 
retreat entirely alone, and it is said that the only 
sportsmen who were ever bidden by him to share 
the sport were Count Hoyos and Count Wilczek. 
The shooting was almost exclusively obtained by 
driving, and some 250 miles of bridle-paths are 
said to have been cut to enable the Royal sports- 
man to gain the elevated stands to which the 
beasts were driven. From 150 to 200 picked 
mountaineers circumvented the game and drove 
it to the well-known defiles where the rifle was 


stationed. Great skill was needed to successfully 
cany out these drives, the scene of the sport being 
at an altitude of from 6,000 to 12,000 feet and the 
beaters were often involved in extremely difficult 

At the time of King Victor Emanuel's death 
his collection of horns, in his chdteau-de-chasse, 
Sarre. near Aosta, totalled 232 pairs of male ibex 
horns, 22 pairs of female ibex horns, and over 700 
pairs of chamois horns, and these figures probably 
represent the extent of his bag. 

What the largest bag was as the result of a 
single day's shooting we do not definitely know, 
but according to Mr. W. A. Baillie-Grohman, the 
Rev. W. A. B. Coolidge has stated that he once 
saw 12 ibex and 25 chamois brought in as the 
spoils of one day's sport.* 

King Humbert, who succeeded King Victor 
Emanuel, inherited a love for sport. He was a 
first-rate shot, his favourite weapon being a 
Holland and Holland .450 Express, and every 
year he repaired to the Alps for a fortnight's ibex 
and chamois shooting. The details of his bag are 
not available, but according to Count Scheibler 
he killed on an average fifty ibex a year.j 

Ibex are also found in Greece, and in the 
Caucasus, where St. George Littledale shot seven 

" Sport in the Alp* " : 1896 : p. 173. 
f " Sport in En rope " : p, 216. 


in the season of 1887. I have no exact informa- 
tion concerning the record bags for these 
countries, or for Spain, but I do not think they 
would approach the figures of the Piedmont 


The main haunts of the brown bear in Europe 
occur in Russia, Transylvania, Hungary and 
Scandinavia, though they are also met with 
locally in Roumania, Spain, and other parts. 
They attain their largest dimensions in Russia, 
where one shot by Count Andreas Potocki and 
stuffed in an erect attitude stands 7$ feet high. 

E. Demidoff (Prince San Donate) records a 
weight of 960 Ibs. as being the heaviest within his 
knowledge from Eastern Siberia, and from 
European Russia he mentions one which weighed 
800 Ibs. 

Bears may be killed by the ordinary methods 
of stalking or still hunting, by driving, by sitting 
up over a carcass in the spring, when the bears 
are eager for food, or, as is sometimes practised 
by the Lapps, by actually crawling into their 
snow-covered dens, one man in front with a rifle 
and another behind with a long pole at the end 
of which a lighted candle is fixed. 



In former times the bear had a much more 
extensive range in Europe than it has to-day, and 
it seems probable that the record bags were made 
in Saxony in the seventeenth century by those 
two great hunters, the Electors John George 1 
and II. As the complete list of game killed by 
these Royal sportsmen has been given in 
Chapter XI, it is only necessary to state here that 
John George II is believed to have killed 239 
bears, whilst the elder Elector killed only one less, 
though as has already been pointed out there is 
some doubt whether the 238 bears credited to the 
father includes those killed by the whole court 
personage, as the list in his own game diaries 
seems to show that he only killed 102 bears with 
his own hands. 

With regard to individual bags of more recent 
times, "Snowfly" writing in "The Field" of 
June 2nd, 1906, says : " Hof jagmastare Falk, 
Lloyd, and the Finnish officer, Major Berndt 
Hook (who died within the three last years) have 
probably accounted individually for more bears 
in Northern Europe than any other sportsman 
of late years. The two first-named shot about 
too apiece to their own rifles, and the last who 
did most of his hunting in the wilds of Russian 
Karelia, at least as many, besides being present 
at the death of quite double that number ". 



Falk and Lloyd shot most, if not all their bears 
in Scandinavia, and another celebrated hunter in 
that country was the Swede, Jan Svensson, who 
had twice been wounded by bears. Lloyd met 
him when he was between fifty and sixty years of 
age and he had then been concerned with the 
death of sixty or seventy of these animals, very 
many of which he had killed himself.* 

It is probable that the record bag of bears 
obtained by driving was made in Sweden, where 
drives, or " skalls " on an enormous scale have 
been practised. " Snowfly," whom I have already 
quoted, writes as follows : " The greatest of these 
drives ever undertaken was carried out on June 
25th, 26th and 27th, 1856. It took place at the 
northern end of the great Dalecarlin Lake Siljan, 
in the extensive forests along the Vanan, a tribu- 
tgry of the Vester Dal River; 4,000 men from the 
parishes of Mera, Sollero, Elfdal, and Venjan 
formed the driving line, which, with the wings, 
extended over a distance of sixty kilometres. 
" On the two nights which intervened halts were 
made and huge fires were lit in order to prevent 
the wild animals from breaking back, and not 
until late on the third day was the place reached 
where the rifles were stationed. Twenty-three 

L Lloyd : Field Sport* of the North lf . 


bears, nine elk, three wolves, and a lynx were 
Tolled, a result which was considered highly 
satisfactory/ 1 

G6za Count Szchnyi in a contribution to 
" Sport in Europe ", 1901, p. 51, states that " a 
record bag was obtained by a party in Transyl- 
vania, ten or twelve guns bagging, if I remember 
right, twenty-eight bears in the course of three 
weeks, and in the same season another party shot 
twenty- two ". 

In the Kouban game preserves of the Grand 
Duke Serge of Russia, bears were regarded as 
vermin and his hunters are said to have shot on 
an average about eighty a year.* 

B. Demi doff (Prince San Donate) : " Sport in Europe : 1901 : 




TTHE bison of North America, often misnamed 
the buffalo in its native country, is not quite 
so tall as the European species, but owing to the 
thick frontlet and beard, and the shaggy coat of 
hair upon the neck and shoulders, which termin- 
ates at the knees in a mass of luxuriant locks, it 
has the appearance of being a bigger animal than 
is actually the case. 

According to Mr. Hornaday, the range of the 
American bison formally extended over about 
one-third of North America. From the Atlantic 
coast it extended westward through a great tract 
of forest across the Alleghany Mountains to the 
prairies of the Mississippi system, and across the 
Rocky Mountains into New Mexico, Utah, and 
Idaho. In its southern extension it reached the 
burning plains of North Eastern Mexico and 
northward it spread to the shores of the Great 
Slave Lake. 

As an animal of the chase the American bison 
cannot be said to have ever afforded sport of a 
high order, their natural stupidity and indifier- 



ence to man made them mere targets for riflemen 
rather than quarry which called for the arts of 
hunting. Of the various methods employed in 
their destruction, stalking, riding down, surround- 
ing, hunting in snow-shoes, and shooting them at 
their drinking places, all proved effective, so 
effective, in fact, that in a few short years the vast 
herds which had roamed the prairies and forests 
for countless centuries were reduced almost to the 
point of extinction. 

The greatest slaughter of the American bison 
occurred during the years 1872-3-4 and various 
estimates have been put forward concerning the 
number killed during that period. According to 
the Smithsonian reports, 1,491,000 bison were 
killed by white hunters in 1872 alone, and in the 
following year the number was exceeded by 
about 20,000 head.* These figures may be 
regarded as the most accurate computation made 
and they tally very closely with the carefully 
worked out estimate of Richard Irving Dodge, 
who arrived at the conclusion that 5,373,730 bison 
were killed by white men and Indians during 
these three yearsf According to Theodore 
Roosevelt it was about fifteen years from the time 
the destruction fairly began till the vast herds 

Tb* Field " : astb Anffittt IM. 

t " The Hunting Ground* <rf the Gr**t Wwt " : 1*77 



were exterminated! and by 1884 not a single herd 
of a hundred individuals existed.* Concerning 
the almost incredible numbers that formerly 
existed, two brief quotations will suffice. 
Theodore Roosevelt has described the experience 
of his friend Gen. W. H. Walker, of Virginia, on 
the upper Arkansas River in the early 'so's, as 
follows : " He was camped with a scouting party 
on the banks of the river, and had gone out to 
try to shoot some meat. There were many 
buffaloesf in sight, scattered, according to their 
custom, in large bands. When he was a mile or 
two away from the river a dull roaring sound in 
the distance attracted his attention, and he saw 
that a herd of buffalo far to the south, away from 
the river, had been stampeded and was running 
his way. He knew that if he was caught in the 
open by the stampeded herd his chances of life 
would be small, and at once ran for the river. 
By desperate efforts he reached the breaks in the 
sheer banks just as the buffaloes reached them, 
and got into a position of safety on the pinnacle 
of a little bluff. From this point of vantage he 
could see the entire plain. To the very verge of 
the horizon the brown masses of the buffalo 
bands showed through the dust clouds, coming 
on with a thunderous roar like that of surf* 

" The Wiidernc** Hunter " : 1895 : p. 331. 
t Bison 



Camp was a mile away, and the stampede luckily 
passed to one side of it Watching his chance he 
finally dodged back to the tent, and all that 
afternoon watched the immense masses of buffalo, 
as band after band tore to the brink of the bluffs 
on one side, raced down them, rushed through 
the water, up the bluffs on the other side, and 
again off over the plain, churning the sandy, 
shallow stream into a ceaseless tumult. When 
darkness fell there was no apparent decrease in 
the numbers that were passing, and all through 
that night the continuous roar showed that the 
herds were still threshing across the river. To- 
wards dawn the sound at last ceased, and General 
Walker arose somewhat irritated, as he had 
reckoned on killing an ample supply of meat, and 
he supposed that there would be now no bison 
left south of the river. To his astonishment, 
when he strolled up on the bluffs and looked over 
the plain, it was still covered far and wide with 
groups of buffalo, grazing quietly. Apparently 
there were as many on that side as ever, in spite 
of the many scores of thousands that must have 
crossed over the river during the stampede of the 
afternoon and night". 

Mr. William Blackraore in his Introduction to 
"The Hunting Grounds of the Great West" 
writes : " In the autumn of 1868, whilst crossing 



the Plains on the Kansas Pacific Railroad for a 
distance of upwards of 120 miles, between Ells- 
worth and Sheridan, we passed through an almost 
unbroken herd of buffalo. The Plains were 
blackened with them, and more than once the 
train had to stop to allow unusually large herds 
to pass. A few years afterwards, when travelling 
over the same line of railroad, it was a rare sight 
to see a few herds of from ten to twenty buffalo ". 

Frank Carver is said to have killed 5,500 bison 
in his best year, and in eighteen months as buffalo 
hunter for the construction crew of the Kansas 
Pacific Railway, Cody (Buffalo Bill) killed 
4,280.* An old-time buffalo hunter informed Mr. 
Clive Phillips-Wolley that he himself had 
accounted for 3,500 head in four years and that 
a friend of his, A. C. Myers, once killed 4,200 
buffaloes in the Pan Handle Country, in Texas, 
ijnMonejrear, about the time Hayes was President, f 

Colonel Dodge states that he once counted 112 
carcasses inside of a semi-circle of 200 yards 
radius, aU of which were killed by one man from 
the same spot, and in less than three-quarters of 
an hour,J whilst in 1873, on the Canadian River, 

B* Douglas Branch : " The Hunting of the Buffalo " : 1939 : 
pp aoo and 149. 

f Badminton Library : "Big Game Shooting " : 1894 : Vol. I : 
p. 300, 

: " The Routing Ground* of the Great West M : 1877 : p. ijfc 



Charlie Rath is said to have shot 107 bison at one 
stand.* This methodical butchery was made 
possible owing to the fact that so long as the 
hunter remained concealed he could often shoot 
beast after beast with well-directed shots, whilst 
the dwindling band of survivors, instead of run- 
ning away, would gather in astonishment around 
their dead or dying comrades. Armed usually 
with the accurate " Sharp " rifle, weighing about 
i61bs., and with other men to do the skinning, 
and a spare man to look after camp and do odd 
jobs, the actual shooter had practically nothing 
else to do but shoot, and many became wonder- 
fully proficient in their ghastly trade. Hunting 
on horseback was doubtless a somewhat more 
exciting form of killing them. A good horse 
ridden by a man who understood his business 
could overtake a herd before they had gone 200 
yards, and then, if so minded, the hunter could 
ride clean through it, splitting it in two and 
thereby being more easily enabled to select his 
victims. The possibilities of this form of hunting 
are well exemplified by Col. Dodge who says: 
" Once when on a hunt I came upon two Mexican 
buffalo hunters, one of whom possessed the finest 
and most perfectly trained buffalo horse I have 

B. Douglas Branch : " Th* Hunting of the Buffalo " : 1999 : 
p. aoo. 



ever seen. They were encamped near a water 
hole to which the buffalo came to drink. On the 
approach of a herd the horses were saddled, the 
fine horse and rider dashed into it, split it up ... 9 
singled out a victim, always a fat two-year-old, 
separated it entirely from its companions, and 
headed it towards camp, when a pistol shot 
finished the race. They had a fine lot of meat 
and a goodly pile of skins, and they said that 
every buffalo had been driven into camp and 
killed as the one I saw ". In this there is a touch 
of artistry, but what can be said of the methods 
adopted in the country south of the South Platte 
where the land was waterless for miles and the 
bison had to resort to the river as their only 
drinking place. As each herd approached the 
water it was met by bullets, and every effort was 
made to prevent the survivors from quenching 
their thirst. Again and again the unfortunate 
beasts would approach the water, and at every 
approach some of their number would be shot 
down, whilst at night time, fires were lighted and 
the shooting still kept up. In many places, says 
Col. Dodge, the valley was offensive from the 
stench of putrefying carcasses. So died the incal- 
culable herds of the American bison the greatest 
sacrifice of wild life to commercialism that the 
world has ever known. 


With the advent of the white man they were 
bound to go sooner or later, and the market for 
their robes, tongues, and meat, merely hastened 
the day. It is easy for one generation to judge 
the actions of another, but it should be remem- 
bered that the " buffalo-hunters " were often men, 
who, for better or for worse, had taken their 
chance in a new country with all the hardships 
that that connotes. If they were disappointed in 
their digging for gold, or in their thousand and 
one other ambitions, then they turned to the 
seemingly limitless crop of bison. The harvest 
was easily gathered and the slaughter was only 
stayed just in time to save this noble looking beast 
from total extermination. 



"THESE splendid animals are the largest living 
representatives of the deer family, and in 
Alaska, where they attain their largest size, they 
may stand 6 ft. 9 in. at the shoulder. In that 
country they are acknowledged to be a separate 
race and are known as Alces gigas, as distinct 
from Alces amen c anus, which occur further 
south. Moose, in common with other North 
American animals, have been enormously re- 
duced in numbers. According to Lockhart, who 
wrote in 1865, they were then common over 
practically the whole of British America, but 
their present range is said to be restricted mainly 
to Alaska, Montana, Nova Scotia, and New 
Brunswick. In the summer, moose are usually 
found in the neighbourhood of swamps, lakes, or 
rivers, but in winter they move to higher ground, 
and at all times they are lovers of dense forest. 

Stalking or still-hunting is the form of hunting 
most commonly employed in their pursuit, but 
locally the practice of calling them with an 
artificial call is followed. 



Formerly moose were slaughtered in their 
"yards" when imprisoned by the snows of 
winter, and a great many were also killed by fire- 
hunting, or hunting by torchlight, and by running 
them down on snow-shoes in deep snow. 

Doubtless the record bag of moose, irrespective 
of age and sex, belongs to some meat hunter of 
the long ago, but I think the most noteworthy bag 
"ever made by a sportsman stands to the credit 
of Mr. A. S. Reed, who, in a single hunting trip 
to Cooks Inlet, Alaska, at the beginning of the 
present century, obtained six heads, of which five 
had the following dimensions* : 

No. 1 ....... 76 inches. 

II ....... 72 

III ....... 67 

IV ....... 66 

M V ....... 6 5 

Concerning this wonderfully successful trip Mr. 
Clive Phillips- Wolley has written as follows: 
" The six ' heads ' killed by Mr. Reed in Cook's 
Inlet represent I fancy, the most successful moose 
hunt ever made by a white man, and if you add 
to these six monsters nine bears, the largest of 
which measured over 10 feet in length, five 

PhUlipt-Wolley : " Big Game Shooting " (The " Country 
Ufe " Library of Sport) : 1905 : Vol. I pp. 156-157*158. 



cariboo, some white sheep (0. datti), and walrus, 
it will be admitted, possibly, that no finer trophies 
of a single hunt have ever been brought out of 
the north. 

" Both the bears and the cariboo were honoured 
with new scientific names, and no heads were shot 
which were not exceptional." 

Mr. Reed's best moose head, if judged by points 
and breadth of palm, is still, I think, one of the 
finest, if not the finest head in the world. I be- 
lieve he once shot an even larger one with a span 
of over 80 inches, but this was completely 
destroyed by fire together with the cabin against 
which the head was leaning. 

Mr. Reed is said to have seen ninety moose 
during one " fall " in Alaska, and he undoubtedly 
obtained the finest collection of big game trophies 
from that country that have ever fallen to the rifle 
of a sportsman. 

Since his wonderfully successful expeditions, 
Major C R. E. Radclyffe, accompanied by Mr. 
R. F. Glyn, visited Alaska in 1903, when they 
obtained 6 moose in a representative bag of the 
big game of the country.* In three trips to 
various parts of North America between the years 
1900 and 1906. F. C. Selous shot 6 moose, among 

Major C R H lUdciyftt '* Big G*m Shooting in AU*k " : 
1<*M P n 



them being one very massive head of 67 inches 
which he obtained in September, 1904, on the 
north fork of the Macmillan River in the Yukon. 
Lord Elphinstone, Paul Niedicck and many other 
well-known sportsmen have achieved notable 
successes, but for quality and quantity combined 
Mr. Reed's achievements with moose seem to 
stand alone. 

A notable performance in connection with 
moose hunting has been recorded by Theodore 
Roosevelt, who says* : " One of the most 
successful moose-hunters I know is Colonel Cecil 
Clay of the Department of Law in Washington; 
he it was who killed the moose composing the fine 
group mounted by Mr. Hornaday in the National 
Museum. Colonel Clay lost his right arm in the 
Civil War, but is an expert rifle-shot nevertheless, 
using a short, light 44-calibrc old-style Winchester 
carbine. With this weapon he has killed over a 
score of moose, by fair still-hunting ". 

t " Hauling Adventorc* in tb* Wc*t ' |T1i* WiMrrnet* HanUri) 
p. 174 



THE North American wapiti, commonly called 
the elk, or round-horned elk in its native 
country, is certainly one of the grandest members 
of the deer tribe. A really first-class wapiti head 
is one of the finest trophies of the chase, but great 
heads such as were obtained in the middle of the 
last century are seldom if ever met with now. 
In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
wapiti imported into New Zealand give promise 
of producing heads equal to the best from North 
America. According to W. A, Perry, the wapiti 
was formerly found in nearly all parts of the 
United States, in Mexico, and in British America 
as far as the 6oth parallel of north latitude, but it 
is now restricted to eastern North America. 

Wapiti are more easily approached than red 
deer, but since they have retreated before civili- 
sation and are now more frequently found in 
dense timber country, their pursuit is far more 
arduous than was formerly the case. In former 
times bands of a thousand and more individuals 



were to be seen in open country, but those days 
have gone for ever, and the hunter of to-day can 
no longer pick and choose his heads from the vast 
throngs that once roamed the Continent. 

Though the destruction of wapiti in North 
America never assumed the proportions of the 
organized slaughter of the bison, they suffered 
but little less. Slowly but surely the great bands 
dwindled and dwindled before the incessant 
persecution of the hide-hunters, meat-hunters and 
others. Mr. W. A. Bailiie-Grohman mentions a 
terrible example of wanton destruction. He 
writes as follows* : "In severe winters Nature 
seemed occasionally to assist the work of exter- 
mination. Thus, in a severe blizzard which 
swept over Colorado in the last week of January, 
1893, a band of about 1,000 wapiti became im- 
prisoned by the snow on a high and heavily 
timbered mesa in the mountains near Steamboat 
Springs. Ranchmen, prospectors, and hide 
hunters, on hearing of this windfall, ' waded in/ 
killing many with clubs, as the local papers 
reported, and I believe not a single beast was 
allowed to escape ". 

Turning to legitimate big game hunters, the 
finest bag of wapiti bulls that I can find recorded 
was made by Mr. Andrew Williamson in the 

" Fifteen Years' Sport and Life in the Hooting Groand* at 
Westell America and British Columbia " : 1900 : p. 33. 


season of 1879 in Colorado. The 16 heads that 
he obtained during this trip averaged as 
follows* : 

Length of antlers . 53 inches. 
Span . . . 44 
Girth above burr . ioj 

The following are the summarized particulars 
of eight of Mr. Williamson's bulls : 

Measurements of eight of the sixteen bull wapiti 
shot by Mr. Andrew Williamson in Colorado in 


I J \ 4 1 <> 7 * 

length of Antlff* lv* V 1 * 54* ^4* 13* 3 J* 4)|* 49* 

f -f I - -i -f f 

3>r SS" 34T 35T 5\* 3* S* So" 

sin , iw- 

3" 4^* 45* 

5* 4J" 47** 41* 

Girth Atxivr bun iuj" 

^r nj- <>r 

io|" 10' 

Potut , t ! 

l< 14 14 

t6 13 12 13 

Heifbt *t witbrrf lOh-h i 

<> ini i6| hdb t6 bd. 

i6hd i3bds i6hdi 

3- r 

length from tail 

titrth fcmntl h<rt 6* t* ft' i* 6' 4* 6' o* 3' 10* 3* 1 1* %' if* 

In 1880, Mr. Williamson published an account 
of his trip in a book entitled " Sport and Photo- 
graphy in the Rocky Mountains ". Though this 
work contains little more than fifty pages it gives 
an excellent account of his experiences, and it is 
a most beautiful production. Mr. Williamson 
was an expert photographer, and though the 

* Andrew Williamson : " Sport and Photography in the Rocky 
Jitottlitailis ** : 1880 : p. j^"'^* 



photographs were taken so many years ago they 
are of quite exceptional excellence. 

Referring to the results of his expedition, he 
says : " My bag of big game comprised but thirty- 
two head, all told. I could with ease, had I 
desired it, have more than trebled the number. 
.... During the whole trip I never shot a stag 
whose head I did not bring home as a trophy; 
never fired at a hind; that we only killed such 
blacktail as we really needed, and that, save in 
the case of the grizzly bear, we never lost a 
wounded animal ". 

Unfortunately, very few men who hunted in 
North America in the seventies and eighties of 
last century have left such exact statistics of their 
sport. During that period in Wyoming, Mr. 
Frank Cooper killed two heads of 63} inches and 
62$ inches, and in the same country, Sir H. Seton- 
Karr shot two of 61 inches and 59^ inches. On 
the borders of Wyoming and Idaho, Mr. W. A. 
Baillie-Grohman killed a 64-inch head, but un- 
fortunately it was destroyed when the log cabin 
in which it was stored was burnt to the ground. 
The same sportsman also obtained two other 
heads, both in Wyoming, of 6of inches and 6oJ 
inches* Full details of the bags made by these 
men are not known, but in their time Wyoming 
was one of the finest game countries in the world, 



and it is possible that W. A. Baillie-Grohman, 
who spent fifteen years in Western America, 
obtained the greatest number of really first-class 
wapiti heads that have ever been shot by one 
man. In addition to those heads that he kept 
himself he enriched more than one Continental 
collection with splendid trophies. 

In 1877, in Wyoming, H. Seton-Karr and 
Thomas Bate obtained between them some thirty 
good wapiti heads as well as examples of antelope, 
blacktail deer, and bison, also a grizzly and a 
big-horn ram. An excellent account of this trip 
is to be found in " My Sporting Holidays ", by 
Sir Henry Seton-Karr, which was published in 




THERE are several kinds of bears to be found 
in North America, but just how many distinct 
varieties exist would be more difficult to say. 
Some naturalists have been inclined to name 
varieties on the strength of differences which may 
well be nothing more than local variations. 
Many of the old hunters were also at variance 
on this subject, some holding the view that the 
so-called silver-tips, cinnamon bears, roach- 
backs, etc., were distinct varieties, whilst others 
called them all grizzlies. In the following pages 
I refer to the black bear, to the grizzly (or to bears 
of that type), and to the still larger animals that 
are found in Alaska. With the polar bear we are 
not concerned. The black bear is the commonest 
and most widely distributed of them all. It is 
also the smallest and is not usually a very 
formidable opponent. The grizzly bear is an 
animal of quite three times the size, and under 
certain circumstances it is a decidedly dangerous 
beast President Roosevelt has stated that he has 
personally known of eight cases in which men 
have met their deaths by following grizzlies into 



thick cover. The Alaskan bears, particularly 
those found on the Peninsular, are still larger 
animals. Bears have been hunted in all manner 
of ways. In the southern States, black bears 
have been followed with horse and hound and 
shot with the rifle or shot-gun, and they have also 
been killed with no other weapon than the knife. 
In open country grizzlies have been ridden and 
shot with revolvers, and they have sometimes 
been roped by cowboys. All varieties are more 
commonly killed by stalking or still-hunting, and 
they are also taken in traps, though the last- 
named method does not come within the scope of 
this book. 

General Wade Hampton is said to have been 
in at the death of 500 bears, most of which, if 
not all, were of the black variety. Of this vast 
total, at least two-thirds are said to have fallen 
by his own hand. He once killed 68 bears in 
five months in Mississippi, and on one occasion 
he killed 4 bears in a day.* 

Concerning this great hunter, President 
Roosevelt writes as follows : " General Wade 
Hampton, who has probably killed more black 
bears than any other man living in the United 
States, frequently used the knife, slaying thirty 
or forty with this weapon. His plan was, when 

Theodore Roosevelt : The Wtldem*s Hunter " 1895 : p. 159, 


he found that the dogs had a bear at bay, to walk 
up dose and cheer them on. They would 
instantly seize the bear in a body, and he would 
then rush in and stab it behind the shoulder, 
reaching over so as to inflict the wound on the 
opposite side from that where he stood. He 
escaped scathless from all these encounters save 
one, in which he was rather severely torn in the 

forearm General Hampton always hunted 

with large packs of hounds, managed sometimes 
by himself and sometimes by his negro hunters. 
He occasionally took out forty dogs at a time. 
He found that all his dogs together could not kill 
a big fat bear, but they occasionally killed three- 
year-olds, or lean and poor bears The two 

largest bears he himself killed weighed, respec- 
tively, 408 and 410 Ibs. They were both shot in 
Mississippi. But he saw at least one bear killed 
which was much larger than either of these, 
These figures were taken down at the time, when 
the animals were actually weighed on the scales. 
Most of his hunting for bear was done in northern 
Mississippi, where one of his plantations was 
situated, near Greenville ". 

R. I. Dodge once shot 5 black bears in a single 
day, his own description of this feat being as 
follows*: " It is difficult to find him (the black 

" Hunting Ground* of the Great We*t " : 1*77 : pf 216/117. 


bear) without dogs, though in the berry season, 
many years ago, I bagged without a dog no less 
than five in one day, catching them in little 
patches of plum or hackberry bushes, dashing up 
on horseback and shooting them with a revolver 
as they ran ". 

With regard to the grizzly bear, the largest bag 
I can find mentioned was made by one known as 
Old Ike, who is said to have shot nearly a 
hundred bears. It is not quite dear whether all 
these were grizzly bears, but Theodore Roosevelt 
refers to him in " The Wilderness Hunter " in a 
chapter devoted to hunting the grizzly.* He 
says : " One of the most successful bear hunters 
I ever knew, an old fellow whose real name I 
never heard as he was always called Old Ike, 
was killed .... in the spring or early summer of 
1886 on one of the head- waters of the Salmon. 
He was a very good shot, had killed nearly a 
hundred bears with the rifle, and, although often 
charged, had never met with any accident, so that 
he had grown somewhat careless. On the day 
in question he had met a couple of mining pros* 
pectors and was travelling with them, when a 
grizzly crossed his path. The old hunter imme- 
diately ran after it, rapidly gaining, as die bear 
did not hurry when it saw itself pursued* but 

' Banting Grand* of the Great West ; 1*77 : p, 51? . 


slouched slowly forwards, occasionally turning its 
head to grin and growl. It soon went into a dense 
grove of young spruce, and as the hunter reached 
the edge it charged fiercely out. He fired one 
hasty shot, evidently wounding the animal, but 
not seriously enough to stop or cripple it; and 
as his two companions ran forward they saw the 
be^r seize him with its wide-spread jaws, forcing 
him to the ground. They shouted and fired, and 
the beast abandoned the fallen man on the 
instant and sullenly retreated into the spruce 
thicket, whither they dared not follow it. Their 
friend was at his last gasp; for the whole side of 
the chest had been crushed in by one bite, the 
lungs showing between the rent ribs ". 

An extraordinary feat of hunting in connection 
with the grizzly bear was once performed by 
General Jackson. It was some years before the 
Civil War and Jackson was then a young officer 
in the Mounted Rifle Regiment. Describing this 
incident, President Roosevelt says : " While on a 
scout after hostile Indians, the troops in their 
march roused a large grizzly which sped off 
across the plain in front of them. Strict orders 
had been issued against firing at game, because 
of the nearness of the Indians. Young Jackson 
was a man of great strength, a keen swordsman, 
who always kept the finest edge on his blade, and 



he was on a swift and mettled Kentucky horse, 
which luckily had but one eye. Riding at full 
speed he soon overtook the quarry. As the horse 
hoofs sounded nearer, the grim bear ceased its 
flight, and whirling round stood at bay, raising 
itself on its hind-legs and threatening its pursuer 
with bared fangs and spread daws. Carefully 
riding his horse so that its blind side should be 
towards the monster, the cavalryman swept by 
at a run, handling his steed with such daring skill 
that he just cleared the blow of the dreaded fore- 
paw, while with one mighty sabre stroke he cleft 
the bear's skull, slaying the grinning beast as it 
stood upright ". 

Mr. W. T. Hornaday states that " Mr. W. H. 
Wright, a very successful bear-hunter, once killed 
seven bears in one day* ", though whether they 
were all grizzly bears is not quite clear. 

With regard to the great bears that are found 
in Alaska, Mr. A. S. Reed shot 9 of these animals 
in a single season at the beginning of the present 
century. I have already given particulars of this 
wonderful hunting trip in the chapter devoted to 
Moose, so it is unnecessary to repeat the details 
in full, though it may be mentioned that in addi- 
tion to these 9 bears, Mr. Reed shot 6 moose, 5 
caribou, some white sheep, and walrus. 

Cminp-Fire* ill the Canadian Rockies " : 1906 : p 176. 



In 1903, Major C R E. Raddyffe and Mr. 
R. F. Glyn, accompanied by Mr. Clifford Little, 
who acted as hunter and taxidermist, undertook 
an expedition to Alaska. On the Alaska Penin- 
sular, where the bears are probably the largest 
in Alaska, the party accounted for 12, and in all 
they bagged 15 bears.* Major Radclyffe's 
laj^cst bear measured from nose to tail in a 
straight line was 7 feet 5 inches. The following 
is the total list of game bagged, including a few 
odd caribou or sheep which the natives killed for 
meatf : 

Brown Bears 13 

Black Bears 2 

Moose 6 

Sheep 15 

Caribou 7 

Seal 3 

Fox 2 

Otter i 

Wolverine i 

Porcupine 6 

Rabbits 31 

Eagles 3 

Grouse and Ptarmigan . . . 108 
Geese, ducks, and various varieties 
of other birds, in all about 60 species. 

* Major C. R. B. lUdclyfl* : " Big Game Shooting in AU*k *' 

*M : pp. 4 *d 73. 
t ibti. p, 73. 



IF it were possible to ascertain the actual facts, 
it would probably be found that all the largest 
bags of North American animals were made by 
the pioneer settlers, who, if they were not con- 
ducting ferocious warfare against the Indians, 
were playing havoc with the vast herds of game 
that then inhabited the Continent. Such men as 
Daniel Boone and his fellow hunters formed the 
spear-head of the vast armies that so quickly 
conquered the wilderness. No finer pen-picture 
of those early hunters has ever been made than 
that written by that great sportsman and Presi- 
dent of the U.S.A., Theodore Roosevelt from his 
excellent book, " The Wilderness Hunter ". I take 
the following extracts : " Where they pitched their 
camps and built their log huts or stockaded 
hamlets, towns grew up, and men who were tillers 
of the soil, not mere wilderness wanderers, 



thronged in to take and hold the land. Then, 
ill-at-ease among the settlements for which they 
had themselves made ready the way, and fretted 
even by the slight restraints of the rude and un- 
couth semi-civilization of the border, the restless 
hunters moved onward into the yet unbroken 
wilds where the game dwelt and the red tribes 
marched for ever to war and hunting. Their 
untamable souls ever found something congenial 
and beyond measure attractive in the lawless 
freedom of the lives of the very savages against 

whom they warred so bitterly 

" Very characteristic in its way was the career 
of quaint, honest, fearless Davy Crockett, the 
Tennessee rifleman and Whig Congressman, per- 
haps the best shot in all our country, whose skill 
in the use of his favourite weapon passed into a 
proverb, and who ended his days by a hero's 
death in the ruins of the Alamo. An even more 
notable man was another mighty hunter, 
Houston, who when a boy ran away to the 
Indians; who while still a lad returned to his own 
people to serve under Andrew Jackson in the 
campaigns which the greatest of all the back- 
woods 9 leaders waged against the Creeks, the 
Spaniards, and the British. He was wounded at 
the storming of one of the strongholds of Red 
Eagle's doomed warriors, and returned to his 



Tennessee home to rise to high civil honor, and 
become the foremost man of his State. Then, 
while Governor of Tennessee, in a sudden fit of 
moody anger, and of mad longing for the un- 
fettered life of the wilderness, he abandoned his 
office, his people, and his race, and fled to the 
Cherokees beyond the Mississippi. For yfcars he 
lived as one of their chiefs; until one day, as he 
lay in ignoble ease and sloth, a rider from the 
south, from the rolling plains of the San Antonio 
and Brazos, brought word that the Texans were 
up, and in doubtful struggle striving to wrest 
their freedom from the lancers and carabineers of 
Santa Anna. Then his dark soul flamed again 
into burning life; riding by night and day he 
joined the risen Texans, was hailed by them as a 
heaven-sent leader, and at the San Jacinto led 
them on to the overthrow of the Mexican host. 
Thus the stark hunter, who had been alternately 
Indian fighter and Indian chief, became the 
President of the New Republic, and, after its 
admission into the United States, a Senator at 
Washington; and, to his high honor, he re- 
mained to the end of his days staunchly loyal to 
the flag of the Union." 

Game-books and shooting diaries were things 
unknown to men of this type, so that for our 
" record bags " we have to search elsewhere. 




The reindeer of Northern Europe and the 
caribou of North America, inclusive of its local 
phases, forms a genus by itself which is distin- 
guished from other deer by the form of the 
antlers and their presence in both sexes. Zoolo- 
gists are inclined to subdivide the caribou into 
many local races, some of which can be regarded 
as varieties of the woodland caribou, and others 
as varieties of the barren-ground caribou. From 
the point of view of the hunter they are all much 
the same animal, and for the purpose of these 
notes I do not differentiate between them. All 
caribou are subject to migration to a greater or 
less extent. In the autumn of 1889, Warburton 
Pike witnessed the mighty migration south of the 
barren-ground caribou. Ptarmigan in thousands, 
wolves, wolverines, and arctic foxes, together 
with some scattered bands of caribou, preceded 
the main masses which took no less than six days 
to pass Pike's encampment. 

The horns of caribou are subject to infinite 
variation, animals in the same herd sometimes 
having horns of quite different types* They are 
inquisitive creatures and not very keen-sighted. 

Though caribou have been killed in various 
ways, stalking is probably the only method which 



concerns the big game hunter, and their pursuit 
does not present any exceptional difficulties to an 
experienced hunter. 

According to that great authority, Mr. War- 
burton Pike, it is quite a common occurrence for 
a band of Indians to kill several hundred barren- 
ground caribou at a time, by spearing them from 
canoes after they have been driven into a lake, 
but it would be quite impossible, even if it were 
desirable, to obtain accurate records of this 
nature. Vast numbers have also been shot on 
migration, but these wholesale killings do not 
come within the province of legitimate big game 

So far as I know, the man who obtained the 
finest collection of first-class caribou heads was 
Mr. J. G. Millais. Mr. Millais spent four seasons 
in Newfoundland, hunting and mapping parts of 
the interior, and during this time he shot 52 male 
and 4 female caribou.* Among them were heads 
with 49. 45, 44, 40 and 35 points, and four of 
these were magnificent specimens. The following 
are the dimensions taken from his beautiful book, 
"Newfoundland and its Untrodden Ways", 
of the first three of these heads: 

J. G. Millais : "The Gun at Home and Abroad" : 1915 : Vol. IV 
P *73- 



No. I. 49 painter shot on the Upper Gander, 

near Little Gull, in 1903. 
Length on outer curve . . 36 inches. 
Circumference above bay . 7 
Widest inside . . . 29 
A perfect Newfoundland head in every respect. 

No. II. 45 Pointer shot near Tamnapegawi Lake 

in 1906. 

Length on outer curve . 46$ inches. 
Circumference above bay . 5$ 
Widest inside . . .31 

One of, if not the finest Newfoundland head 

No. ///. 44 pointer shot on the Upper Gander 

in 1903. 

Length on outer curve . . 42 inches. 
Circumference above bay . 6 
Widest inside . . 34 
A very fine head with heavy tops and large 
brows, the bays form its only weakness. 

Mr. Millais also obtained two notable heads in 
Cassiar. The first, though of no great length, it 
is only 40 inches, has 53 good points.* " The 
beautiful symmetry of the head is attained by the 
length and ' wildness ' of the long snags of thct 
upper branches, some of which are 17$ inches 

** Country Life " : ajrd October 1000. 


long, forming in places a double row/ 1 This 
splendid beast was bagged out of a herd that 
contained many fine heads. Mr. Millais writes 
as follows : " Over fifty caribou lay in one herd, 
and among them were twelve huge bulls, the 
smallest carrying a head any hunter would have 
been proud to possess. I looked them over with 
greedy anticipation. Some had great long horns, 
one about 58 inches or 60; another had splendid 
tops but poor brows; another had a very beauti- 
ful, spindly head, broken up at the top in two 
bifurcating beams, each with long, irregular 
points; but the king of them all was the biggest 
stag which lay at the top and carried the finest 
pointy head I had ever seen". His second 
notable head from Cassiar was 56 inches in 
length. The principal feature of this head is the 
enormous development of the tops. 

I must here mention that I had hoped to obtain 
certain first-hand information from Mr. J. G. 
Millais, and indeed, in the early stages of writing 
this book, he did supply me with valuable advice 
and assistance, but before I had proceeded far it 
was with the deepest regret that I learnt of his 
death. A first-rate shot with both rifle and gun, 
a good fisherman, and a capable artist, he also 
had a most extensive knowledge of horticulture 
and arboriculture. At one time and another he 


filled with distinction the r61es of soldier, sailor, 
and British Consul, but he will probably be 
remembered best as a field naturalist and the 
author of many splendid books on natural history 
and sport. In this capacity he was second to 
none, and during his lifetime he accomplished an 
enormous amount of work. He possessed the 
rare gift of being able to transmit to others, by 
pencil, brush, and word, the charm and beauty 
of nature which fascinated him so deeply from 
the cradle to the grave. If his passing leaves a 
blank in many circles, his works remain as a 
monument to a noble and purposeful life. 


Mule-deer, so called on account of the enor- 
mous size of their ears, are somewhat lacking in 
grace compared with certain members of the deer 
tribe. They are stoutly built animals, and their 
horns, which are of a complex character, are 
subject to variations from the normal type. A 
really good mule-deer head makes quite a hand* 
some trophy. They are usually found in rough 
broken country and their pursuit thus demands 
the methods of the " still-hunter " rather than the 
"stalker" where the game is spied from a dis- 
tance and then stalked to within range. Mule- 


deer are infrequently referred to as black-tails, 
particularly by early writers on North American 

Some twenty-five miles or so from Fort Lyon, 
Richard Irving Dodge once shot 31 mule-deer in 
one week.* Concerning this week's shooting he 
writes as follows : " I once spent a week at a fine 
spring in the heart of a series of canons, which 
more abounded in black-tails f than any locality 
I have ever seen. It was on this occasion that 
I bagged thirty-one. The constant presence of 
men, horses, and dogs had no effect to frighten 
away the deer, and one or more were bagged 
early each morning, sometimes within a few 
hundred yards of camp ". 


The white-tailed deer and its immediate rela- 
tives afford sport to a greater number of hunters 
than any other game animal in America. They 
may be pursued by hounds followed by mounted 
hunters armed with rifles, or by driving them to 
" stands " where the hunters are concealed, or by 
the ordinary methods of stalking or still-hunting. 
Like all North American deer they love well* 

R. t Dodge : " Hutting Ground* ol the Great West " : 1877 

pp. ifti-i&a. 
t Dodge in common with ouuijr hunter* ol his time refer* to male* 

- * blck-ttib 


timbered country, but their habits and appear- 
ance are too well known to call for any special 

The largest bag of these animals that I can 
find recorded was made by Richard Irving 
Dodge. Referring to a lovely valley in the 
Guadalupe Mountains he writes as follows* : " I 
obtained permission to go on a hunt, and arrived 
in that valley about noon one day, hunted that 
afternoon, all next, and until noon the third day. 
My bag to my own hand was five black bear and 
twenty-three deer, which altogether being as 
much as my pack mules could possibly carry, I 
was forced to return to my post before my hunt 
was half out. This was an exceptional oasis. 
The foot of white man had probably never before 
trod it. The Indians being debarred by super- 
stition from entering it, the game for several years 
had been entirely undisturbed, and knew nothing 
of the danger of the presence of man ". 


The description "black-tailed deer" is some- 
times used somewhat indiscriminately, but I refer 
here to the Columbian black-tailed deer. This 
species has a very restricted distribution as it is 
apparently confined to the mountain-ranges 

R. L Dodge ; " Hunting Ground* of the Great West " 
p. 191. 



bordering the Pacific in the neighbourhood of the 
Columbia River and it is said to be unknown to 
the eastwards of the Sierra Nevada. In size it is 
rather smaller than the mule-deer and with rela- 
tively smaller ears. Its antlers are of the same 
type as the mule-deer's and very similar in 

I do not know what is the largest bag of these 
animals obtained by fair hunting and by shooting 
bucks only, but Mr. Clive Phillips- Wolley has 
recorded that in 1893 two half-breeds (excellent 
shots and woodsmen) are reported to have killed 
22 of these deer in a single day in the neighbour- 
hood of Victoria.* 


The pronghorn antelope, or prongbuck, is the 
only representative of a family closely allied to 
the Bovida*, though distinguished by the fact that 
the sheaths of the horns of the males are forked 
and shed annually. They are exceedingly swift, 
though their endurance is not great and they are 
unable to jump. They are shy and timid by 
nature though their curiosity will sometimes lead 
them to within easy range of the hunter. Prong- 
bodes congregate in herds and frequent open 

* Badminton Lribrmrjr : " Big Game ShooUnf " : 1894 : Vol. I : 
P 4*3 



prairie country in the temperate regions of the 
western portion of North America, though their 
range was formerly more extensive than it is to- 
day. They may be hunted by the ordinary 
methods of stalking and they also afford good 
sport if coursed with powerful greyhounds. 

The largest bag of antelope made by one man 
in a single season that I have found recorded was 
^made by one Sam Wells, " who, when the Union 
Pacific Railway was being built to the west of 
Cheyenne, killed, in his capacity of meat-hunter 
to the construction party, 84 antelope, 24 elk 
(wapiti) and 18 deer during one autumn ".* 

Richard Irving Dodge states that on one occa- 
sion he stalked a large herd feeding in an open 
glade, surrounded by rocks and cedar thickets. 
Unable to locate the sound of the rifle, or to see 
any dust, they rushed round and round the glade, 
and only escaped after he had knocked down 
seven of their number, f 

It is probable that considerably larger bags 
have been made though I have been unable to 
obtain exact details. According to Sir Henry 
Seton-Karr " a bag of 20 or 30 antelope was not 
an uncommon morning's work for an old hand 
when the Union Pacific Railway was being laid"4 

* Ctir* Phillipa-Wottey : Badminton Library . " Big Gftmt Shoot- 

iaf " : i*w : Vol 1 : p. 404. 

f " Hftttttfift Ground* of the Great We*t " : 1*77 : p 199, 
1 "My Sporting Holiday*" 1904: pp 153/1. 




JN the course of my researches I came across the 
accounts of various feats performed with the 
rifle, and of incidents in connection with the 
pursuit of animals, which, though not coming 
strictly within the province of this work, seemed 
worthy of collection. I do not put them forward 
as records, but on account of their rareness, 
curiosity, or other interest. 

Rabbits cannot by any stretch of the imagina- 
tion be regarded as big game, but they are some- 
times shot with low-velocity, small-bore rifles* A 
remarkable bag of this nature was recorded in 
"The Field" of nth September, 1877: In the 
course of a single afternoon's sport in Lincoln- 
shire, Mr. H. W. L. Haigh shot 123 rabbits as they 
came out of their holes. The average range was 
about fifty yards and they were killed with a .250 
rifle by Holland and Holland firing hollow 


Another extraordinary piece of shooting with a 
" rook and rabbit rifle " was recorded in " The 
Field " of loth October, 1931. Mr, Harry Clifton, 
writing from Kildalton Castle, Isle of Islay, stated 
that he had recently taken a guest " Lord 
Dunsany, out for an hour before dinner, and he 
took a .250 rifle to pot a rabbit or two. This 
was the eventual bag: One woodcock, one 
snipe (shot on the wing), two blackcock and two 

Shooting in India in 1883, Colonel Howard got 
i ravine deer (buck), i bustard, 2 peafowl, i sand* 
grouse, and i duck in a day, all shot with a 

On certain estates in the Highlands of Scotland, 
days which yield sport to rifle, rod, and gun are 
possible, and the feat of killing a stag, a grouse, 
and a salmon in a day, has, judging by the sport* 
ing press, been accomplished by a good many 
individuals. The most remarkable of these mixed 
days that I have found recorded was achieved by 
Lieut-Col. C Beddington, at Glendye, Kincar- 
dineshire, on October I3th, 1930. Starting at 
6.30 a.m. with the idea of trying to get a stag, a 
salmon, a grouse, and a blackcock, he finished the 

* Badminton Library : " Big Game Shooting " : 1894 : Vol. n : 


day at dusk with the following bag to his credit* : 
2 Stags. 

1 Roe-deer (killed with the rifle, run- 

ning at over 200 yards). 
6 Pheasants. 
4 Blackgame. 
4 Partridges. 

2 Grouse. 

i Merganser, 
i Heron. 

1 Rabbit. 

2 Salmon (one killed on fly and one 

with worm). 

Total 24 head. 

Mr. W. Steuart Menzies, of Culdares, shooting 
and fishing at Glen Lyon on a day in September, 
1918, obtained the following: In the morning, 
grouse, blackgame, snipe, golden plover, 
partridge, wild duck, woodcock; and in the after- 
noon, i stag, i roe, and i salmon weighing 28 Ibs. 
Mr Steuart Menzies was unaccompanied all day 
and he had to carry his salmon two and a half 
miles home, and row over the River Lyon.f 

The shooting of three stags and a driven salmon 
(with the rifle) is certainly an unusual feat, but Mr. 
P. R. C(halmers) has described such a day, when 

" The Field " : 8th November 1930. 
f ibid. 6th December 1950. 



he, as an onlooker, witnessed its accomplishment 
by a French gentleman whom he describes as a 
superb rifle shot. The stags, no doubt, were shot 
in the ordinary manner, but the salmon, a fish of 
about 10 Ibs., was driven out of a pothole and shot 
from a high bank, through the head, as it dashed 
downstream over a swirling shallow.* 

In North America, in the country south-east of 
Fort Dodge, on the small tributaries of the 
Cimarron River, a strangely assorted bag was made 
with rifles and guns in October, 1872. The party 
consisted of Colonel R. L Dodge of the U.S. Army, 
a brother officer, and three Englishmen, and in a 
hunt of twenty days they bagged the following f : 

127 Buffalo (Bison) i Blue Bird. 

2 Deer Cranes, 
ii Antelopes 187 Quail. 

(Prongbuck), 32 Grouse. 

154 Turkeys. 84 Field-plover. 

5 Geese. 33 Yellow Legs 
223 TeaL (Snipe). 

45 Mallard. 12 Jack Snipe. 
49 Shovel-bill. i Pigeon. 

57 Widgeon. 9 Hawks. 

38 Butter-ducks. 3 Owls. 

3 Shell-ducks. 2 Badgers. 
17 Herons. 7 Racoons. 

143 Meadow Larks, 11 Rattlesnakes. 
Doves, Robins, etc. 

Total 1,262 

* "The Field/* ' /T """^ 

f R. I. Dodge : " The Hunting Grounds of the Great West " ; 
1*77- P- "8 



Sooth America has little to offer the hunter of 
big game, and it would not be to everyone's taste 
to engage in the pursuit of the wild vicugna or 
vicunia, the llama-like animals that inhabit the 
high Andes immediately below the snow-line. 
Mr. Lydekker has given an interesting account 
of the hunting of these strange creatures. He 
writes as follows* : " The Indians hunt vicunias 
by forming a circular enclosure of stakes con- 
nected by cords, with a diameter of about half 
a mile, and an entrance of some couple of 
hundred feet in width. The cords connecting 
the stakes are hung with bright-coloured pieces 
of cloth, which flutter in the wind and prevent 
animals from trying to break through. When 
the enclosure is ready, the hunters made a wide 
circuit on the mountains, and drive in all the 
flocks of vicunias there may be in the neighbour- 
hood; the animals being despatched by the bolas 
a weapon consisting of two large balls con- 
nected by a string, which is whirled round the 
hunter's head and then hurled with unerring aim 
at his victim. The flesh is divided among the 
Indians, but the skins belong to the priests. The 
wool, although small in quantity, is fine and of 
excellent quality; and in 1826 a law was made 
that the vicunias should be caught and shorn, 

" Th* ROY*) N*tr*t Hwtory " Vol 11 i*w p. 414, 

instead of killed, but the wildness o! the animals 
rendered this impracticable. In the time of the 
Incas vicunia-hunts, in which as many as thirty 
thousand men took part, were organized upon a 
large scale. An area of some twenty miles would 
be completely surrounded, and every living thing 
driven in; and it is said that at times as many as 
forty thousand head of game, including bears, 
pumas, foxes, deer, vicunias, and guanacos, 
would be thus surrounded. Such a hunt would 
last for a week, during which many hundred head 
of game would be killed, Tschundi mentioning 
that in a hunt which he joined, upwards of 
one hundred and twenty-two vicunias were 
slaughtered ". 

Australia is another country that has little in 
the way of big game, though the kangaroo affords 
various forms of sport. In areas where these 
animals had become so plentiful as to be a 
menace to the settlers, driving on a large scale 
with the aid of nets, dogs, mounted men, and 
hunters armed with clubs has been practised. 
I do not know what the record bag may be, but 
the following account of a drive, presumably in 
1897, seems worth recording*: "At a wallaby 
drive on the Biragaubil estate recently some 
eighty ladies and gentlemen participated, when, 

" Tht Pfei4 " : nth SrpUmber 1*97, 



according to the Sydney ' Morning Herald/ 
some miscellaneous sport was obtained. 307 
kangaroos and wallabies were killed, Mr Thomas 
West, of Guntawang, heading the score with 21 ". 



This list docs not represent the whole of the books thai have 
searched. Some of quilt the best works on Big Gam* contain little 
$tatistical matter, and only those that have yielded information 
for the purpose of the present volume are included in the 


W. A. 




BELL, W. D. M. 



Lake Ngami 1856 

The Okavango River 1861 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

Fifteen Years' Sport and 

Life in the Hunting 

Grounds of Western 

America and British 

Columbia 1000 

Sport in the Alps 1896 

The Albert N'Yanza, Great 

Basin of the Nile 1866 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

Eight Years' Wanderings 

in Ceylon 1855 

Ismailia 1874 

The Nile Tributaries of 

Abyssinia 1868 

The Rifle and Hound in 

Ceylon 1864 

Wild Beasts and their 

Ways 1890 

African Hunting and 

Adventure from Natal 

to the Zambesi 1894 

Sport in Norway 1864 

The Wanderings of an 

Elephant Hunter 1023 

Thirty Years of Shikar 1895 

The Hunting of the Buffalo 1929 



















The Great and SmaU Game 

of Africa 1699 

Gun and Camera in 

Southern Africa 1893 

Big Game Shooting (The 

" Country Life " Library 

of Sport) 1905 

The dun at Home and 

Abroad 1912-15 

Wild Norway 1897 

Thirty-seven Years of Bigf 

Game Shooting in Cooch* 

Behar, The Duars, and 

Assam ~ 1908 

Five Years of a Hunter's 

Life in South Africa 1850 

Hunting Trips in the* 

Caucasus 1900 

Sport in Europe 1901 

The Hunting Grounds of 

the Great West 1877 

Catalogue of the Selous 

Collection of Big Game 

in the British Museum 

(Natural History) 1921 

Memories of Travel, Sport, 

and Natural History 1930 

The Recollections of 

William Finaughty (Pri- 
vately printed in the 


Eleven Years in Ceylon 1840 

The Highlands of Central 

India 1871 

The Book of the Rifle 1901 

Sport in Europe 1901 

Record Bags and Shooting 

Records 19*2 

The Wild Sports of 

Southern Africa 1839 












MlLLAlS, J. G. 






Big Game Shooting (The 

r ' Country Life " Library 

of Sport) 1503 

Camp-Fires in the Canadian 

Rockies 1006 

The Chronicles of Scotland 10x4 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

Field Sports of the North 

of Europe 1831 

Scandinavian Adventures 1854 

The Game Animals of 

Africa 1926 

The Game Animals of India, 

Burma, Malaya and 

Tibet 1024 

The Royal Natural History 1894 

The African Elephant and 

its Hunters 1924 

Grouse and Grouse Moors 1910 

British Deer and their 

Horns 1897 

The Gun at Home and 

Abroad 1912-15 

The Life of F, C. Sclous 1918 

The Mammals of Great 

Britain and Ireland 1906 

Newfoundland and its 

Untrodden Ways 1907 

Wanderings and Memories 1919 

Sir Samuel Baker A 

Memoir 1893 

Elephant Hunting in East 

Equatorial Africa 1897 

The Great and Small Game 

of Africa 1899 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

WUlaim Cotton Osweii, 

Hunter and Explorer, 

the Story of bis Life 1900 



















H. G. C 


G. T, 

Edmund Loder A Memoir 1923 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

Big Game Shooting 

(Badminton Library) 1894 

Big Game Shooting 

(The " Country Life 

Library of Sport) 1905 

The Barren Ground of 

Northern Canada 1892 

Flood, Fell and Forest 1905 

Sport in Europe 1901 
Big Game Shooting in 

Alaska 1004 

The Wilderness Hunter 1893 

Thirteen Years among the 

Wild Beasts of India 1882 

Sport in Europe 1901 

Sport in Europe 1901 

African Nature Notes and 

Reminiscences 1908 

A Hunter's Wanderings in 

Africa 1881 

Recent Hunting Trips in 

British North America 1909 

Sport and Travel, East 

and West 1900 

Travel and Adventure in 

South-East Africa 1893 

My Sporting Holidays 1904 

Hunting and Shooting in 

Ceylon 1907 

The Adventures of an 

Elephant Hunter 19x2 

Seventeen Trips through 

Somaliland and a Visit 

to Abyssinia 1900 

Experts on Guns and 

shooting 1900 



P. B. 







The Gun at Home and 

Abroad 1929-15 

Discovery of Lakes Rudolf 

and Stefanic 1894 

Records of Big Game 

(Ninth Edition) 1928^ 

Days and Nights with/ *~ 

Indian Big Game 1923 

Modern Pig-sticking 1914 

Sport and Photography in 

the Rocky Mountains s8fto 

Five Months' Sport in 

Somaliland 1894 

My Sporting Memories 1933 




Amen-Hotep III, 96 

Andersson. C. ]., Biographical notes, 7$-4o 

Injured by rhinoceros, So 
Methods of hunting, 79 

One night's mixed bag by, 79 
Antlers, Largest known of red deer, 162 
Arco-Zinneberg, Count, 186 
Ardennes, 190 

Argali. Siberian. Head shot by Mr. St. George Littledale, aio 
Auersperg, Prince, aoo 
Axis-Jeer, see ChitaJ 


Baigre, Col., 1x6 
Baiuie-Grohman, W. A., Historical researches by, 163 

Wapiti heads obtained by. 143. 244 
Baker. Sir Samuel W., Biographical notes. 50-60 

,. Day with buffaloes in Ceylon, 72 

D<ysr- talking in Scotland, 55 
Discovery of the Albert N*Yanza. 55 
Estimate o! his bag of African elephants, 56 

,. Favourite weapon for buffalo shooting, 72 

Forms of sport in Ceylon. 51 
Game killed in Africa, 56 

,. His book. "The Rifle and Hound in Ceylon, "5 1 

,, Hunting with hounds, 54. 144*146, 156 

.. Injured by elephant, 52 

Kills an immense rogue elephant, 53 
Kills two buffaloes with one shot, 72 

Kills four chital with two bullets, 148 
List of hia battery. 60 
Narrow escape from buffalo, 69*72 
,, Opinion of Ceylon buffaloes, 67 

Rifles used by. 57-60 
Sambar hunting, 144-146 
,, Sport in Asia Minor, 55 

Sport in North America. 56 

Tigers shot by, 57 
Wapiti shot by, 56-57 
Baldwin, William Charles. Biographical Notes, 133-136 

Bag for one night's shooting. 134 

List of game shot by. 135. 136 
Baraslngh, Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of Cooch 

Behar, 151 

Barker. Mr. Billy, 158 
Barns, Mr T. A.. 43 
Bate. Mr. Thomas. 244 

Bears. Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of Cooch Behar. 



Bean (Black), Bags made by driving. 146, 149 

Nature of, 148 

Bean (European), Distribution of. 124 

Methods of hunting, 214 
Record bags of, 225-917 

Site of. 224 

Bean (North American). Danger of hunting, 245, 246 
Hunting with the knife, 246 

,, Killing with a sabre, 249^-250 

Record bags of, 246-250 

Varieties of, 245 

Beddington. Lieut -Col. C . 265 
Beaufort, Roe-deer killed at. 189 
Bell. Mr. W. D M , Biographical notes, 18-24 

Book" The Wanderings of an Elephant 

Hunter", 22. 23 

,. Buffaloes shot by, 62 

M Experience of the white rhinoceros, oo 

,, Financial results of elephant hunting, 21 

,, Greatest number of elephants shot by, in one 

day, 19 
Greatest number of elephants *hot by, in one 

month, 19 

Leopards shot by, 104 

Lions shot by, 104 

,, Localities shot in, 18 

,, Most disappointing day experienced by, 19 

Most memorable experience, 20 

,, Most unpleasant experience, 21 

On African rhinoceroses, 90 

On lions, 92-93 
On lion hunting, 104, 105 
Rhinoceroses shot by, oo 
Rifles used by, 23 
Rules of life when hunting, 22 
Runs a herd of elephants to a walking pace, 22 
Shoots buffaloes with, 22 H.V. rifle, 62 
Skill as big game shot, 23, 62, 63, 104 
,, Total bag of elephants. 19 

Worst month's hunting experienced by, 19 
,. Yearly consumption of boot leather, 21 

Yield of ivory from his safaris, 20 

Helper, Lady, 184, 185 
Belper, Lord, 184, 185 
Bewicke-Copley, Major, 108 
Bikaoer, H.H. The Maharajah of, 116 
Bison, American, Bags of, 229, 232, 233 
Distribution, 228 
Former numbers of, 229-232 
Methods of hunting, 229 
Bison. European, Characteristics, 202 
Distribution, 202-2x24 
Historical notes on, 203, 104 
Record bag of, 204 

Two shot by Mr St. George LittfedaJe, 207, 208 
Bisoo, Indian, see Gaur 



Bbcktack, Record bag of, 142 
BUckmore, Mr William, 231 
BUckmount, Deer killed at. 181 
Black-Uiled deer, Characteristics, 262 

Distribution. 261, 261 
Record bag of. 262 

Blood, Sir Bindon, 117 
Braddon, Sir Edward, 143 
Bam, Colonel, 141 
Buffaloes African, Danger of hunting, 61, 62 

Destruction of, by rinderpest, 63 

Record bags of, 62 

Selous' adventure with two bulls, 64-66 

Selous' experience with bull on the Chobe, 64 
Buffaloes Asiatic, Danger of hunting, 67 

Maharajah of Cooch Behar's big days with, 74, 75 

Methods of hunting, 67, 68 

Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of 
Cooch Behar, 75 

Record bags of, 68, 74 

Sir Samuel Baker saved from one by charge of 
small change, 72 

Sir Samuel Baker's great day with. 71 

Sir Samuel Baker's long shot at, 72-74 

Two killed by one shot, 72 
Buxton, Mr. E. N., 206 

Campbell, Sir John, 116 

Cariboo. Methods of hunting, 255, 256 

Migrations of, 255 
,, Record bags of, 256 

Varieties of. 253 
Carpeaetto, Count. 75, 139 
Carton de Wiart. General, 154 
Carver, Frank, 232 

Caucasus, Mr. St. George Uttledale's sport in, 208, 209 
Chalmers. Mr. P. R . Fen-picture of R. Gordon Gumming. 41 

Witnesses salmon shooting incident. t66. 267 
Chamois. Historical notes on chase of. 193. 194 
Record bags of. 194. 200, 201 
Shooting in Spain, 200 
Chitai. Methods of hunting. 146 

Numbers in Ceylon. 34, 146, 147 
Sir Samuel Baker's sport with. 147, 148 
,. Two killed with one bullet, 148 
Clay, Colonel. 139 
Clayton, Capt. Browne. 108 
Cttaton. Mr. Pdham, 141 
CobboM. Mr. It P., Bag of tigers in 1897. no 

Mixed bug in India. 149. 150 
Cody (Buffalo Btti). 131 
Cooch Behar, The Maharajah of. Bag for a month's shoot* 73 

Buffalo shooting by. 74. 75 
., ftafiakM* shot on the donuimn of. 75 

,. Gtrnr shooting by. 140. 141 

Rhinoceros shoots. 137. 139 



Coocb Behar, The Maharajah of. Tiger shoots, 109 
Tigers shot on the domains of, 1 10 

Total game shot on the domains of, 130, 151 
Cooper, Mr. Frank. 343 
Crawford, Mr. Malcolm, 157, 138 
Crockett, Davy. 853 

Camming. R. Gordon, Ability as a hunter, 42 
Battery used by. 43 
Best day's shooting, 39 
Book'* Five Years of a Hunter's Life in 

South Africa", 38 
Collection of trophies, 41 
Elephants killed by, 38 
Pen-picture of, by Mr. P. R, Chalmers, 41 


Darnaway Forest, 189 
Datia, H H. the Maharajah of, 94 
Defrtes, Mr. Louis, 124 
Delamere, Lord, 100 
Desborough, Lord, 182 
Dibidale, Forest of. 179 
Dodge, Richard Irving, Bag of mule deer by. 260 

Bag of white-tailed deer by, 261 

Mixed bag by, 267 
Pronghorn shooting incident, 263 
Dnnsany, Lord, 263 
Dyott, Mr. G. M , 113 


Edinburgh. Duke of, 123 
Eland, Number shot by F. C. Selous, 131 
Elephants, African, Antiquity of hunting, 17 
Danger of hunting, 17 

Herd run to a walking pace by Mr. W. D. M. 

Bell, 22, 23 

Methods of hunting, 17 
Record bags of. 18, 19, 44 
Sir Samuel Baker's experience of, 36 

Six killed with five bullets, 37 
Slaughter of. by the Van Zyls\ 44 
Tusks of, obtained by W. Finaughty, 37 

A. H. Neumann, 32 
.. W. C, Oswell, 88 
,, J. Sutherland, 23 
Elephants. Asiatic. Height of, in Ceylon. 47 

Largest shot by Sir Samuel Baker. 33 
,, Methods of shooting by native hunters in India* 46 

Number killed in India by G. P. Sanderson, 46 
Record bags of. 47-30 
Sir Samuel Baker caught by, 51 
Elk, Distribution of, 212 
Emperor of Russia's shooting parties, 313 
., Methods of hunting, 212-215 
., Record bags of, 113 
Shooting with pointers, 216 
., S*M of antlers in various countries. 113, 216 



Elk, Swedish Royal shooting parties for, 213, 

Elliot* Lady Eileen, 109 

Ellis, Major, 108 

Elphinstone, Lord, 75, 139, 239 

Elwes, Mr. H. J., 190, 216 

Emanuel, King Victor, of Italy, 221-223 

Ezra, A., 74 

Etra, E., 74 

Fako, Snr. J. P., 156 

Falk, Hoftjagmastare, 225 

Faunthorpe, Lieut. -Col. J. ., Biographical notes, 111-116 

Exhibitor at horse shows, 112 

General Wardrop on, 114 

Lions shot by, in India, 115 

Panther shooting by, 112, 113 

Pig-sticking, 112 

Skill with the rifle, 113. 114 

Tigers shot by. HI, 113 

War services, 114 

Wins Running Deer Competition at 

Bisley, 114 
Faunthorpe Memorial Cup, ti6 
Fausett, Capt. Godfrey, 108 
Ferdinand, Archduke Francis, 191 
Festetica, Count Tassilo, 191 
Fey, Mr. Jim, 94, 95 
Finaughty William, Biographical notes, 34-38 

Description of the plains of the Free State, 35 

Elephants shot by. 36 

Heaviest tusks obtained by, 37 

Largest number of elephants shot by, in one 

day, 36 

Quotation on danger of buffalo hunting, 61 
Rifles used by. 37 

Shoots six elephants with five bullets, 37 
Shoots seven lions in one day, 96 
Fire-arms, Early Continental. 165, 197 
Forsyth, Capt. J., Opinion of buffalo hunting, 67 
Frederica, Princess of Eisenach, 168 
Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg. 161 

Galhrey. Capt., 48. 49 

Garbott, Colonel* loS 

Gur, Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of Cooch Behar. 

Record bag of, 140, 141 

Gemabuck, Number shot by F. C. Selous, 131 

George I, Elector John, of Saxony, Biographical notes. 164-167 

Horns of stags killed bj, 166 
Roe-deer killed by, iM 
Summary of game killed by. 164 
Wild boar kitted by, 153 



George II, Elector John, of Saxony. Bears killed by. 115 

,, Biographical note*, 164*167 

Horns of stags killed by, 166 
Roe-deer killed by, 188 
Summary of game killed by, 

Wild boar killed by, 153 

George V, H.M. King, 107, 108, 139 

George, Landgrave John, of Brandenburg. 153, 168 

Giraffes, Number shot by F. C Selous, 131 

Glyn, Mr. R. F.. 238 

Godailo, Wild boar shooting at, 155, 156 

Grant, Mr. C. Macpherson, 189 

Grochowlski. Count, 154 

Guns, see Rifles 


Haigh, Mr H W L , 264 
Halleberg, Elk shooting at, 213 
Hampton, General Wade. 246. 247 
Hams, Capt. Cornwallis, 45, 78 
Helmsley, Lord. 141 
Hewitt. Sir John, 116 
HU1, Mr. Clifford. 98 
Hill, Mr. Harold D., 98 
Hddk, Major Berndt, 225 
Howard, Colonel, 265 
Hoyos. Count, 222 
Humbert, King, of Italy, 200. 223 
Hunneberg. Elk shooting at, 213 
Hunter, Mr. J, A.. 100 (foot-note). 


Ibex, European. Numbers in Europe, 222 
Record bags of, 222, 223 
Ibex. Spanish. 222 

Jackson, General. 249, 250. 

Jacobs, Petrus, Biographical notes, 33, 34 

Elephants killed by, 34 

Lions killed by. 98 

Mauled by lion, 9$, 99 

James V. King, 177 
odd, Mr. William, Lions killed by. too 

Narrow escape from lion, 101 


Kangaroo hunts, 269, 270 
Keppel. Sir Colin, 108 
Khan, Mangal, no 
Kimtaird Castle, 189 
Kudu. Number shot by F. C, Sekms, 131 




Langwcll and Braemore, Excellence of red deer at, 181 
Larsen, Karl Elephants filled by, 43 

,, Shoots seven lions in two minutes. 96 

Layard, Mr. E. L , 47 

Layard, Capt., Elephants shot by in Ceylon, 48 
Leopards, Number shot by Mr. W. D. M. Bell, 104 

,, Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of 

Cooch Behar. 150 

Lions, Danger of hunting, 92, 93, 104 
Judd's narrow escape from, 101 
Largest bag in a day made in South Africa, 95 
Methods ox hunting, 93, 94, 97 
Record bags of, 94, 97, 98, 103 
Seven shot in two minutes, 96 
Sir Alfred Pease on " Riding them", 94 
Wagon besieged by, 95 
Littledale, St. George, Bag made by, in the Caucasus, 208 

,, ., ,, Neilgherry Hills, 209 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Rocky Mountains, 209 

,, Bag of Ovis Poll made by, 209 

Biographical notes. 206-211 
Discovers bison in the Caucasus, 206 
Ibex shooting in the Caucasus, 223. 224 
Shoots bison in the Caucasus, 207, 208 
Shoots wild camels, 209 
Skill with rifle, 210, 211 
Trophies obtained by, 210 
Loder, Sir Edmund, 182, 183, 201, 209, 210 
Loder, Mr. Sydney. 182 
Lonsdale, Lord, 75, 109, 139 
Louts XV. of France, 169, 170 
Louis XVI of France, 170 
Lydekker, Richard, On vicunia hunts, 268, 269 


Maria, Governess of the Netherlands, 168, 169 
Massow, Baron, 74 

Maukiewicxe, Wild boar shooting at, 154 
Maximilian, Emperor, Biographical notes, 195-199 

Skill with cross bow, 196, 197 

,. Sporting establishment of, 199 
Mentiea, Mr. W Steuart, 266 
Millais. Mr. J G. Caribou shot by. 256-258 
Ufe and work of, 258, 359 
Minto, Countess of, 109 

Earl of, 109 
Mixed bags, in India, 149, 150, 265 

in North America, 267 

in Scotland, 265-267 

Moescoondie. Pig-sticking at, 157-160 
Montgomery, Buffalo shooting incident, 63, 64 



Meow, Distribution of. 936 

Head obtained by G. J. van Heck, Jr , 218 
M Heads obtained by A. S. Reed. 237. 338 

Methods of banting, 236, 137 
Number of. in Alaska, 238 
*,, Record bag of, 237 
Shooting with one arm, 239 
Moritzburg, Collection of antlers at. 162 
Mosdcld. His Excellency M. Ignacy. 134 
Mole-deer, Characteristics of, 259 

R. I. Dodge's bag of, 260 
Murray, of Lintrose. 81, 87 
Myers, A. C, 232 


Nepal, Rhinoceros shooting in, 139 
Tiger shooting in, 107-109 

Neumann, Arthur H., Best days with elephants, 31 
Biographical notes, 26- 33 
Book by " Elephant * Hunting in Kast 

Equatorial Africa". 27 
Elephant tusks obtained by, 32 
Narrow escape in the Doer War, 30 
Rifles used by, 32 
Seriously injured by elephant, 29 
Shoots his first elephant, 29 
Skill as a shot, 32 

Niedieck, Paul, 239 

Orange Free State, Great drive of game in, 125, 126 

Osborn, Professor H. Fairneld, on antiquity o! elephant hunting, 17 

Osweli, William Cotton, Biographical notes, 80-88 
Discovers Lake Ngami, Si 
Favourite weapon of, 82-84 
Feeds six hundred natives for seven weeks, 87 
Injured by rhinoceros. 85-87 
Methods of hunting, 82 
Narrow escapes from buffalo and lioness. 84 
Narrow escape from white rhino, 84, 85 
Pen-picture of, 82 
Results of his elephant hunting. 88 
Sport in India, 81 

Ovii Pott, Uttledale'i bag of, 209 

Paget, Colonel Arthur, 102 

Panthers. Lieut. -Col. Faunthorpe's shooting of, 112. 

Paris. Mr. George. 159 

Pmtiala, H.H. The Maharajah of, 156 

Sir Alfred, Lion shooting on farm of, 95 
M On " riding lions". 94 

.. Rifles used by, 210 

Wide experience of. 95 



Perdval, Mr A. B., Lion* shot by, 101, 102 
Percy, Major Algernon Hebor, 206 
Pig-sticking, 112, 157-160 
Pike, Warbortoo, on caribou hunting, 256 

on caribou migration, 255 

Portland, Duke of, 181, 182 
Potocki, Count Constantin, 216 
., Count Joseph, 155 
M Count Paul, 154, 155 
Pottinger, Sir Henry, 216 

Pronghorn Antelope, Characteristics of, 262. 263 
Methods of hunting. 263 
Record bags of, 263 


Quagga, Number shot by Baldwin and his hunters, 135 

Rabbits. 264 

Radclyffe, Major C. R .. Game killed in Alaska by. 251 

,, Moose shot by, 238 

Radziwill, Prince Charles. 154 
t . Prince Jerome, 154 

Rainey, Paul, 97 
Ramsay, Sir Henry, no 
Rath, Charlie, 233 

Red Deer, Acclimatization of, in New Zealand, 183, 184 
Bags obtained at Munkacs, 176 

At Spala. 174, 175 
MM In Spain, 176 
Historical notes on chase of. 161-170, 177, 178 
Number killed at " Blackmount," 181 

" Strathrakk," 181 

Record bags of, Continental. 163. 170, 171 

New Zealand, 183-185 

Scottish, 177, 182 

Reed, Mr. A. S., 237, 238, 239 
Reindeer, Distribution of. 219 

Methods of hunting, 219, 220 
Record bags of, 220 

Rhinoceroses, African, Anderson injured by, 80 
Danger of hunting, 76-78 
Decrease of, in South Africa, 89 
Finaughty and Gilford's sport with, 88 
Numbers formerly in South Africa, 88 
Oswell injured by, 85-87 
Record bags of, 78, 88 
Major Stigand Injured by, 45 
White species, 78. 88-90 
Rninoceroses, Great Indian, Number shot on the domains of the 

Maharajah of Cooch Behar. 150 
Range of, 137 
Record bag of. 137, 138 



Rifle* (and smooth bow*}. First sportsmen to adopt .156 

Low-velocity. 164 

" Rook and Rabbit", 180. 163 
. " Sharp", a33 

.. Used by Sir Samuel Baker, 57-60, 72 

W. D. M Bell, 26, 6t, 104 
.. Colonel Clay, 239 
M R. P, Cobbold. no 
W. Finaughty. 37 
,, R. Gordon Gumming, 43 
,, King Humbert of Italy, 200, 101 
,, Karl Larsen, 4} 
,. St. George UtUedale, ato. ait 
,, A. H. Neumann, 39 
W. C. Oswell, 8a-84 
M Sir Alfred Pease, a to 
.. Major Kogeri, 48 
,, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 171 
F. C. Selous, ia8 
., ,, ,, Colonel ]. Stevenson-Hamilton, 


M J. Sutherland, a6 

Roan Antelope, Number shot by F. C. Selous, 131 
Roe-deer. Four killed at one shot, 193 

Heads at Vienna Exhibition, 187, 191 
Historical notes on chase of, 186, 187 
Number killed on Continent, 186 
On islands of Danube, 191 
Record bags of, 188-191 
Shooting from canoe, 191, 192 
Swedish, 192 
Rogers, Major, Elephants killed by, 47, 48 

,, Guns used by, 48 

Roosevelt, Theodore (President), on bear hunting, 245, 248-450 

on pioneer hunters, 252-4 
Ross, Edward, 179 

,, Horatio. 178-180 
Royal Hunt of Sweden, 213, 214 
Rudolf, Crown Prince, of Austria, 191 
Russell, Sir Baker, 108 
Russia, Emperor of, 174, 189, 190, 204, 215 


Sable Antelope. Number shot by F. C. Selous. 131 

Three shot with one bullet, 135 
Sam bar. Sir Samuel Baker's hunting of, 144-146 

Methods of hunting, 144 
,. Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah of Coock 

Behar, 151 

Record bags of, 144 
Sfexe-Altemboarg, Prince Albert of, 205 



Saxe-Cobnrg-Gotha, Duke Ernest I! of. Bag lor 000 year, 175, 174 

Biographical notes, 171*174 
Chamois shot by, aoi 
Horns of stags shot by, 171 
Red deer shot by, 171 
Skill as a shot, 172, 173 
Schepetowka, Roe-deer shooting at, 190 

Wild boar shooting at. 155 

Schwarzenberg, House of. Game killed on estates of, 176 
Sekras, F. C, Adventure with two buffaloes, 64-66 
Biographical notes. 126-133 
Collection of trophies, 130 
Elephant-gun used by. 128 
Horse injured by buffalo, 66 
Lists of came shot by. 131-133 
Natural History Museum Memorial. 130 
On danger of rhinoceros hunting. 76. 77 
Reindeer hunting. 221 
Summary of expeditions, 129 

Sen. P 


Seton-Karr, Sir Henry, On Pronghorn shooting. 263 

,, Wapiti heads obtained by, 243 

Wapiti hunting experiences, 244 

Sikh ex-soldier, Lion shooting by, 09, 100 
Simpson, Sir Benjamin, 139 
Skinner, Capt., Elephants shot by, 48 
Smith- Dorrien. Sir Horace, 108 
Spala. Imperial forest of. 174 
Stevenson-Hamilton, Col. J., 102. 103 
Stigand, Major C. H , 45 
Sutherland, Mr. James, Biographical notes, 24-26 

Book" The Adventures of an Elephant 

Hunter", 23 
Elephants shot by. 24 
Heaviest tusks obtained by, 23 
Narrow escapes of. 25 
Rifles used by, 25 

.. Mr, J, G,, 
Svensson. Jan.. 226 
Swayne, Colonel H G. 

Tarifa. Duke of. 136 

C., Career of, 119-124 
Explorations by. 123 
Mauled by lioness, 120 
On predatory cats, 121 
On statistics of sport. 122 
Tiger shooting incident, 1 1 7-1 19 
War services, 124 

Taraowski. Count 2 , 191 

Teano. Prince, 75. 139 

Teck. Duke of, 108 

Teleki. Count Samuel. Buffaloes shot by, 66 

Rhinoceroses shot by, 91 



Thott, Count Stig, 19* 
Tkhborae. Sir Henry. 75, 159 
Tigers, Distribution of, 107 
Habits of, 106 

Methods of hunting, 106, 107 
Number shot on the domains of the Maharajah o! Cooch 

Behar, no 

Record bags of, 207-111 
,, Col. Swayne'i incident with. 117-119 
Trauttmansdorf, Prince Charles, 187 
Tsessebe. Number shot by F. C. Setous, 131 
Turin, Count of, 75, 139 
Tyskiewiex, Count B., 154 

Umiolsi Reserve, 89 

Van der Byl. P. B., On black bear shooting, 148, 149 

Reindeer stalking, 221 
van Hock. G. J , Jr., 217, 218 
Vardon, Major Frank, 81, 91 
Vernay, Mr. Arthur S., 115 
Vernay-Faur horpe Expedition, 115 
Vicunia bur *, 268, 269 

Viljoen, Ja a.. His party's bag of elephants for one season, 44 
Reputation as an elephant hunter. 43 


Wallaby drive, 269, 270 
Wapiti. Distribution of, 240 

,, Record bags of, 241, 242 
Slaughter of, 241 

Wales, H.R.H. Prince of (H.M. King Edward VII), 2x3 
Walker, General W. H., 230, 231 
Ward. Lt.-Col. A. E., in 
Waidrop, Maj.-Gen. A. E., 106 
Watson, Mr. Hall. 75, 139 
Wells. Sam, 263 
West, Mr. Thomas. 270 
White-tailed deer, Methods of hunting, 260 

,, Record bag of, 261 

Whittal, Mr. H. , 209 
Wttcxek, Count. 222 
Wild Boar, Characteristics of. 152 

Hunting of, with hounds, 156 

Methods of hunting, 152-155 

Pig-sticking records, 157 

Record bags of, 153, 154 

Shooting in Spain, 156 

Six* of , in VolhynU, 155 



William IV, Duke, of Bavaria, iS8 
Williams, Mr. John, 181 
Williamson, Mr. Andrew, a4i-*43 
Winans, Mr. Walter, 178 
Wplkowycki, Colonel, 154 
Wolvcrton, Lord. ioa 
Woot de tanee, Baron de, 190 
Wright, Mr. W. H., ajo 
Wflrtemberg, Dukes of, 168 

Zillerthal Alps, 200